Facebook Patent | Aromatic substituted methane-core monomers and polymers thereof for volume bragg gratings

Patent: Aromatic substituted methane-core monomers and polymers thereof for volume bragg gratings

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Publication Number: 20210155584

Publication Date: 20210527

Applicant: Facebook

Abstract

The disclosure provides recording materials including aromatic substituted methane-core derivatized monomers and polymers for use in volume Bragg gratings, including, but not limited to, volume Bragg gratings for holography applications. Several structures are disclosed for monomers and polymers for use in Bragg gratings applications leading to materials with higher refractive index, low birefringence, and high transparency. The disclosed derivatized monomers and polymers thereof can be used in any volume Bragg gratings materials, including two-stage polymer materials where a matrix is cured in a first step, and then the volume Bragg grating is written by way of a second curing step of a monomer.

Claims

  1. A compound of Formula I(a), I(b), or I(c): ##STR00096## wherein in Formulas I(a), I(b), and I(c): Ar is at each independent occurrence an optionally substituted aryl substituent; R is at each independent occurrence hydrogen or a substituent comprising one or more groups selected from optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, –OR.sup.a, –SR, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2, –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –O(O)P(OR.sup.a).sub.2, and –O(S)P(OR.sup.a).sub.2; n is independently at each occurrence an integer from 0 to 7; t is 1 or 2; each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.a is independently selected at each occurrence from hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl; and at least one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises at least one polymerizable or crosslinkable group.

  2. The compound of claim 1, wherein any one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more linking groups selected from –C.sub.1-10 alkyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkyl-, –C.sub.1-10 alkenyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkenyl-, –C.sub.1-10 cycloalkenyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 cycloalkenyl-, –C.sub.1-10 alkynyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkynyl-, –C.sub.1-10 aryl-, –O–C.sub.1-10–, -aryl-, –O–, –S–, –S(O).sub.w–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –C(O)S–, –SC(O)–, –OC(O)O–, –N(R.sup.b)–, –C(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)–, –OC(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)O–, –SC(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)S–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(NR.sup.b)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)S(O).sub.w–, –S(O).sub.wN(R.sup.b)–, –S(O).sub.wO–, –OS(O).sub.w–, –OS(O).sub.wO–, –O(O)P(OR.sup.b)O–, (O)P(O–).sub.3, –O(S)P(OR.sup.b)O–, and (S)P(O–).sub.3, wherein w is 1 or 2, and R.sup.b is independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted aryl.

  3. The compound of claim 1, wherein any one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more terminal groups selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted styrene, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted lactone, optionally substituted carbonate, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, and trimethylsilanyl.

  4. The compound of claim 1, wherein the polymerizable or crosslinkable group is selected from optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted cycloalkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted styrene, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted lactone, optionally substituted lactam, and optionally substituted carbonate.

  5. The compound of claim 1, wherein Ar is selected from substituted phenyl, substituted phenyl, substituted naphthyl, substituted anthracenyl, substituted phenanthrenyl, substituted phenalenyl, substituted tetracenyl, substituted chrysenyl, substituted triphenylenyl, and substituted pyrenyl.

  6. The compound of claim 1, wherein Ar is selected at each independent occurrence from 1,2-substituted phenyl, 1,3-substituted phenyl, and 1,4-substituted phenyl.

  7. The compound of claim 1, having Formula 10, 11, or 12: ##STR00097## wherein n is at each independent occurrence 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

  8. The compound of claim 1, wherein n is independently at each occurrence 1.

  9. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound has Formula 101, 102, or 103: ##STR00098##

  10. The compound of claim 1, wherein R is hydrogen or methyl.

  11. The compound of claim 1, wherein any one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from -Me, –OMe, –OPh, –SMe, –SPh, –F, –Cl, –Br, and –I.

  12. The compound of claim 1, wherein any one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from ##STR00099##

  13. The compound of claim 1, wherein any one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from ##STR00100##

  14. The compound of claim 1, wherein any one of R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from: ##STR00101##

  15. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound comprises one or more groups selected from: ##STR00102## ##STR00103##

  16. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound comprises one or more groups selected from: ##STR00104##

  17. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound comprises one or more groups selected from: ##STR00105## ##STR00106## ##STR00107##

  18. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound has any one of Formulas 1001 to 1020: ##STR00108## ##STR00109## ##STR00110## ##STR00111## ##STR00112##

  19. A recording material for writing a volume Bragg grating, the material comprising a resin mixture comprising a first polymer precursor comprising the compound of claim 1, wherein the first polymer precursor is partially or totally polymerized or crosslinked.

  20. A volume Bragg grating recorded on the recording material of claim 19, wherein the grating is characterized by a Q parameter equal to or greater than 1, wherein Q = 2 .pi. .lamda. 0 d n 0 .LAMBDA. 2 ##EQU00006## and wherein .lamda..sub.0 is a recording wavelength, d is the thickness of the recording material, n.sub.0 is a refractive index of the recording material, and .LAMBDA. is a grating constant.

Description

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of, and priority to, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/941,458, filed Nov. 27, 2019, incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. This application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. _, entitled “Aromatic Substituted Alkane-Core Monomers and Polymers Thereof for Volume Bragg Gratings” filed concurrently herewith (Attorney Docket Number 010235-01-5315-US) and U.S. patent application Ser. No. _, entitled “Aromatic Substituted Ethane-Core Monomers and Polymers Thereof for Volume Bragg Gratings” filed concurrently herewith (Attorney Docket Number 010235-01-5343-US), all of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

FIELD

[0002] Described herein are recording materials for volume holograms, volume holographic elements, volume holographic gratings, and the like, as well as the volume holograms, volume holographic elements, volume holographic gratings produced by writing or recording such recording materials.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Polymeric substrates are disclosed in the art of holographic recording media, including for example photosensitive polymer films. See, e.g., Smothers et al., “Photopolymers for Holography,” SPIE OE/Laser Conference, 1212-03, Los Angeles, Calif., 1990. The holographic recording media described in this article contain a photoimageable system containing a liquid monomer material (the photoactive monomer) and a photoinitiator (which promotes the polymerization of the monomer upon exposure to light), where the photoimageable system is in an organic polymer host matrix that is substantially inert to the exposure light. During writing (recording) of information into the material (by passing recording light through an array representing data), the monomer polymerizes in the exposed regions. Due to the lowering of the monomer concentration caused by the polymerization, monomer from the dark, unexposed regions of the material diffuses to the exposed regions. See, e.g., Colburn and Haines, “Volume Hologram Formation in Photopolymer Materials,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1636-1641, 1971. The polymerization and resulting diffusion create a refractive index change, referred to as .DELTA.n, thus forming the hologram (holographic grating) representing the data.

[0004] Chain length and degree of polymerization are usually maximized and driven to completion in photopolymer systems used in conventional applications such as coatings, sealants, adhesives, etc., usually by using high light intensities, multifunctional monomers, high concentrations of monomers, heat, etc. Similar approaches were used in holographic recording media known in the art by using organic photopolymer formulations high in monomer concentration. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,874,187 and 5,759,721, disclosing “one-component” organic photopolymer systems. However, such one-component systems typically have large Bragg detuning values if they are not precured with light to some extent.

[0005] Improvements in holographic photopolymer media have been made by separating the formation of a polymeric matrix from the photochemistry used to record holographic information. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,103,454 and 6,482,551, disclosing “two-component” organic photopolymer systems. Two-component organic photopolymer systems allow for more uniform starting conditions (e.g., regarding the recording process), more convenient processing and packaging options, and the ability to obtain higher dynamic range media with less shrinkage or Bragg detuning.

[0006] Such two-component systems have various issues that need improvement. For example, the performance of a holographic photopolymer is determined strongly by how species diffuse during polymerization. Usually, polymerization and diffusion are occurring simultaneously in a relatively uncontrolled fashion within the exposed areas. This leads to several undesirable effects: for example, polymers that are not bound to the matrix after polymerization initiation or termination reactions are free to diffuse out of exposed regions of the film into unexposed areas, which “blurs” the resulting fringes, reducing .DELTA.n and diffraction efficiency of the final hologram. The buildup of .DELTA.n during exposure means that subsequent exposures can scatter light from these gratings, leading to the formation of noise gratings. These create haze and a loss of clarity in the final waveguide display. As described herein, for a series of multiplexed exposures with constant dose/exposure, the first exposures will consume most of the monomer, leading to an exponential decrease in diffraction efficiency with each exposure. A complicated “dose scheduling” procedure is required to balance the diffraction efficiency of all of the holograms.

[0007] Generally, the storage capacity of a holographic medium is proportional to the medium’s thickness. Deposition onto a substrate of a pre-formed matrix material containing the photoimageable system typically requires use of a solvent, and the thickness of the material is therefore limited, e.g., to no more than about 150 .mu.m, to allow enough evaporation of the solvent to attain a stable material and reduce void formation. Thus, the need for solvent removal inhibits the storage capacity of a medium.

[0008] In contrast, in volume holography, the media thickness is generally greater than the fringe spacing, and the Klein-Cook Q parameter is greater than 1. See Klein and Cook, “Unified approach to ultrasonic light diffraction,” IEEE Transaction on Sonics and Ultrasonics, SU-14, 123-134, 1967. Recording mediums formed by polymerizing matrix material in situ from a fluid mixture of organic oligomer matrix precursor and a photoimageable system are also known. Because little or no solvent is typically required for deposition of these matrix materials, greater thicknesses are possible, e.g., 200 .mu.m and above. However, while useful results are obtained by such processes, the possibility exists for reaction between the precursors to the matrix polymer and the photoactive monomer. Such reaction would reduce the refractive index contrast between the matrix and the polymerized photoactive monomer, thereby affecting to an extent the strength of the stored hologram.

SUMMARY

[0009] The disclosure provides a compound of Formula I(a), I(b), or I(c):

STR00001

[0010] wherein in Formulas I(a), I(b), and I(c): Ar is at each independent occurrence an optionally substituted aryl substituent; R is at each independent occurrence hydrogen or a substituent comprising one or more groups selected from optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2, –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –O(O)P(OR.sup.a).sub.2, and –O(S)P(OR.sup.a).sub.2; n is independently at each occurrence an integer from 0 to 7; t is 1 or 2; each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.a is independently selected at each occurrence from hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl; and wherein the compound of Formula I(a), I(b), or I(c) comprises at least one R substituent comprising at least one polymerizable or crosslinkable group. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a, –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2, –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –O(O)P(OR.sup.a).sub.2, and –O(S)P(OR.sup.a).sub.2; n is independently at each occurrence an integer from 0 to 7; and t is 1 or 2. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises a polymerizable or crosslinkable group.

[0011] In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more linking groups selected from –C.sub.1-10 alkyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkyl-, –C.sub.1-10 alkenyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkenyl-, –C.sub.1-10 cycloalkenyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 cycloalkenyl-, –C.sub.1-10 alkynyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkynyl-, –C.sub.1-10 aryl-, –O–C.sub.1-10–, -aryl-, –O–, –S–, –S(O).sub.w–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –C(O)S–, –SC(O)–, –OC(O)O–, –N(R.sup.b)–, –C(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)–, –OC(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)O–, –SC(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)S–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(NR.sup.b)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)S(O).sub.w–, –S(O).sub.wN(R.sup.b)–, –S(O).sub.wO–, –OS(O).sub.w–, –OS(O).sub.wO–, –O(O)P(OR.sup.b)O–, (O)P(O–).sub.3, –O(S)P(OR.sup.b)O–, and (S)P(O–).sub.3, wherein w is 1 or 2, and R.sup.b is independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted aryl. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more linking groups selected from –(CH.sub.2).sub.p–, 1,2 disubstituted phenyl, 1,3 disubstituted phenyl, 1,4 disubstituted phenyl, disubstituted glycidyl, trisubstituted glycidyl, –CH.dbd.CH–, –C.ident.C–, –O–, –S–, –S(O).sub.2–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –OC(O)O–, –NH–, –C(O)NH–, –NHC(O)–, –OC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)O–, –SC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)S–, –NHC(O)NH–, –NHC(NH)NH–, –NHS(O).sub.2–, –S(O).sub.2NH–, –S(O).sub.2O–, –OS(O).sub.2–, –OS(O)O–, (O)P(O–).sub.3, and (S)P(O–).sub.3, wherein p is an integer from 1 to 12. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more linking groups selected from –(CH.sub.2)–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.2–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.3–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.4–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.5–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.6–, 1,4 disubstituted phenyl, disubstituted glycidyl, trisubstituted glycidyl, –CH.dbd.CH–, –O–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –NH–, –C(O)NH–, –NHC(O)–, –OC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)O–, –SC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)S–, and (S)P(O–).sub.3. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more linking groups selected from –C.sub.1-10 alkyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkyl-, –C.sub.1-10 alkenyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkenyl-, –C.sub.1-10 cycloalkenyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 cycloalkenyl-, –C.sub.1-10 alkynyl-, –O–C.sub.1-10 alkynyl-, –C.sub.1-10 aryl-, –O–C.sub.1-10–, -aryl-, –O–, –S–, –S(O).sub.w–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –C(O)S–, –SC(O)–, –OC(O)O–, –N(R.sup.b)–, –C(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)–, –OC(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)O–, –SC(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)S–, –N(R.sup.b)C(O)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)C(NR.sup.b)N(R.sup.b)–, –N(R.sup.b)S(O).sub.w–, –S(O).sub.wN(R.sup.b)–, –S(O).sub.wO–, –OS(O).sub.w–, –OS(O).sub.wO–, –O(O)P(OR.sup.b)O–, (O)P(O–).sub.3, –O(S)P(OR.sup.b)O–, and (S)P(O–).sub.3, wherein w is 1 or 2, and R is independently hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted aryl. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more linking groups selected from –(CH.sub.2).sub.p–, 1,2 disubstituted phenyl, 1,3 disubstituted phenyl, 1,4 disubstituted phenyl, disubstituted glycidyl, trisubstituted glycidyl, –CH.dbd.CH–, –C.ident.C–, –O–, –S–, –S(O).sub.2–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –OC(O)O–, –NH–, –C(O)NH–, –NHC(O)–, –OC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)O–, –SC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)S–, –NHC(O)NH–, –NHC(NH)NH–, –NHS(O).sub.2–, –S(O).sub.2NH–, –S(O).sub.2O–, –OS(O).sub.2–, –OS(O)O–, (O)P(O–).sub.3, and (S)P(O–).sub.3, wherein p is an integer from 1 to 12. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more linking groups selected from –(CH.sub.2)–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.2–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.3–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.4–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.5–, –(CH.sub.2).sub.6–, 1,4 disubstituted phenyl, disubstituted glycidyl, trisubstituted glycidyl, –CH.dbd.CH–, –O–, –C(O)–, –C(O)O–, –OC(O)–, –NH–, –C(O)NH–, –NHC(O)–, –OC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)O–, –SC(O)NH–, –NHC(O)S–, and (S)P(O–).sub.3.

[0012] In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more terminal groups selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted styrene, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted lactone, optionally substituted carbonate, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, and trimethylsilanyl. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more terminal groups selected from alkenyl, cycloalkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more terminal groups selected from optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted vinyl, optionally substituted allyl, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, and optionally substituted allyl. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more terminal groups selected from vinyl, allyl, epoxide, thiirane, glycidyl, acrylate, and methacrylate. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more terminal groups selected from optionally substituted thiophenyl, optionally substituted thiopyranyl, optionally substituted thienothiophenyl, and optionally substituted benzothiophenyl.

[0013] In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more terminal groups selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted heteroalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted styrene, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted lactone, optionally substituted carbonate, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, and trimethylsilanyl. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more terminal groups selected from alkenyl, cycloalkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more terminal groups selected from optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted vinyl, optionally substituted allyl, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, and optionally substituted allyl. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more terminal groups selected from vinyl, allyl, epoxide, thiirane, glycidyl, acrylate, and methacrylate. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more terminal groups selected from optionally substituted thiophenyl, optionally substituted thiopyranyl, optionally substituted thienothiophenyl, and optionally substituted benzothiophenyl.

[0014] In some embodiments, the polymerizable or crosslinkable group is selected from optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted cycloalkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted acrylate, optionally substituted methacrylate, optionally substituted styrene, optionally substituted epoxide, optionally substituted thiirane, optionally substituted glycidyl, optionally substituted lactone, optionally substituted lactam, and optionally substituted carbonate. In some embodiments, the polymerizable or crosslinkable group is selected from vinyl, allyl, epoxide, thiirane, glycidyl, acrylate, and methacrylate.

[0015] In some embodiments, Ar is selected from substituted phenyl, substituted phenyl, substituted naphthyl, substituted anthracenyl, substituted phenanthrenyl, substituted phenalenyl, substituted tetracenyl, substituted chrysenyl, substituted triphenylenyl, and substituted pyrenyl. In some embodiments, Ar is selected at each independent occurrence from 1,2-substituted phenyl, 1,3-substituted phenyl, and 1,4-substituted phenyl. In some embodiments, Ar is at one or more independent occurrences 1,4-substituted phenyl.

[0016] In some embodiments, the compounds disclosed include compounds having Formula 10, 11, or 12:

STR00002

[0017] In some embodiments, n is at each independent occurrence 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. In some embodiments, n is independently at each occurrence 1.

[0018] In some embodiments, the compound has Formula 101, 102, or 103:

STR00003

[0019] In some embodiments, R.sup.1 is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R.sup.1 is methyl. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more groups selected from -Me, –OMe, –OPh, –SMe, –SPh, –F, –Cl, –Br, and –I. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more groups selected from

STR00004

In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more groups selected from

STR00005

In some embodiments, the substituent comprises one or more groups selected from:

STR00006

In some embodiments the compound comprises one or more groups selected from:

STR00007## ##STR00008

In some embodiments, the compound comprises one or more groups selected from:

STR00009

In some embodiments, the compound comprises one or more groups selected from:

STR00010## ##STR00011## ##STR00012

[0020] In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from -Me, –OMe, –OPh, –SMe, –SPh, –F, –Cl, –Br, and –I. In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from

STR00013

In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from

STR00014

In some embodiments, each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 independently comprises one or more groups selected from:

STR00015

[0021] In some embodiments, the compound has any one of Formulas 1001 to 1016:

STR00016## ##STR00017## ##STR00018## ##STR00019## ##STR00020## ##STR00021

[0022] In some embodiments, the compound has any one of Formulas 1017 to 1020:

STR00022

[0023] The disclosure also provides a resin mixture comprising a first polymer precursor comprising one or more compounds described herein comprising at least one substituent comprising at least one polymerizable or crosslinkable group. In some embodiments, a resin mixture described herein further comprises a second polymer precursor comprising a different compound comprising a polymerizable or crosslinkable group. In some embodiments, a resin mixture described herein further comprises a third polymer precursor comprising a different compound comprising a polymerizable or crosslinkable group. In some embodiments, a different compound is selected from an alcohol and an isocyanate.

[0024] The disclosure also provides a polymeric material comprising a resin mixture described herein, the second polymer precursor in the mixture being partially or totally polymerized or crosslinked. In some embodiments, the first polymer precursor is partially or totally polymerized or crosslinked.

[0025] The disclosure also provides a recording material for writing a volume Bragg grating, the material comprising a resin mixture described herein, or a polymeric material described herein. In some embodiments, the recording material comprises a transparent support. In some embodiments, the material has a thickness of between 1 .mu.m and 500 .mu.m.

[0026] The disclosure also provides a volume Bragg grating recorded on a recording material described herein, wherein the grating is characterized by a Q parameter equal to or greater than 1, wherein

Q = 2 .pi. .lamda. 0 d n 0 .LAMBDA. 2 ##EQU00001##

and wherein .lamda..sub.0 is a recording wavelength, d is the thickness of the recording material, n.sub.0 is a refractive index of the recording material, and .LAMBDA. is a grating constant. In some embodiments, the Q parameter is equal to or greater than 5. In some embodiments, the Q parameter is equal to or greater than 10.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0027] The foregoing summary, as well as the following detailed description of the present disclosure, will be better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings.

[0028] FIG. 1 illustrates generic steps for forming a volume Bragg grating (VBG). A raw material can be formed by mixing two different of precursors, e.g., a matrix precursor, and a photopolymerizable imaging precursor. The raw material can be formed into a film by curing or crosslinking, or partially curing or crosslinking the matrix precursor. Finally, holographic exposure initiates the curing or crosslinking of the photopolymerizable precursor which is the main step of the holographic recording process of making a VBG.

[0029] FIG. 2 is a schematic illustrating the various steps included in a controlled radical polymerization for holography applications. The general goals for such applications is the design of a photopolymer material that is sensitive to visible light, produces a large .DELTA.n response, and controls the reaction/diffusion of the photopolymer such that chain transfer and termination reactions are reduced or suppressed. The polymerization reaction that occurs inside traditional photopolymer materials is known as a free radical polymerization, which has several characteristics: radical species are produced immediately upon exposure, radicals initiate polymerization and propagate by adding monomer to chain ends, radicals also react with matrix by hydrogen abstraction and chain transfer reactions, and radicals can terminate by combining with other radicals or reacting with inhibiting species (e.g., O.sub.2).

[0030] FIGS. 3A-3C illustrate generally the concept of using a two-stage photopolymer recording material for volume Bragg gratings, the material including a polymeric matrix (crosslinked lines), and recording, photopolymerizable monomers (circles). As the material is exposed to a light source (arrows, FIG. 3A), the monomer begins to react and polymerize. Ideally, polymerization occurs only in the light exposed areas, leading to a drop in monomer concentration. As the monomer polymerizes, a gradient of monomer concentration is created, resulting in monomer diffusing from high monomer concentration areas, toward low monomer concentration areas (FIG. 3B). As monomer diffuses into exposed regions, stress builds up in the surrounding matrix polymer as it swells and “diffuses” to the dark region (FIG. 3C). If the matrix becomes too stressed and cannot swell to accommodate more monomer, diffusion to exposed areas will stop, even if there is a concentration gradient for unreacted monomer. This typically limits the maximum dynamic range of the photopolymer, since the buildup of .DELTA.n depends on unreacted monomer diffusing into bright regions.

[0031] FIG. 4 illustrates an example of an optical see-through augmented reality system using a waveguide display that includes an optical combiner according to certain embodiments.

[0032] FIG. 5A illustrates an example of a volume Bragg grating. FIG. 5B illustrates the Bragg condition for the volume Bragg grating shown in FIG. 5A.

[0033] FIG. 6A illustrates the recording light beams for recording a volume Bragg grating according to certain embodiments. FIG. 6B is an example of a holography momentum diagram illustrating the wave vectors of recording beams and reconstruction beams and the grating vector of the recorded volume Bragg grating according to certain embodiments.

[0034] FIG. 7 illustrates an example of a holographic recording system for recording holographic optical elements according to certain embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0035] Volume gratings, usually produced by holographic technique and known as volume holographic gratings (VHG), volume Bragg gratings (VBG), or volume holograms, are diffractive optical elements based on material with periodic phase or absorption modulation throughout the entire volume of the material. When an incident light satisfies Bragg condition, it is diffracted by the grating. The diffraction occurs within a range of wavelength and incidence angles. In turn, the grating has no effect on the light from the off-Bragg angular and spectral range. These gratings also have multiplexing ability. Due to these properties, VHG/VBG are of great interest for various applications in optics such as data storage and diffractive optical elements for displays, fiber optic communication, spectroscopy, etc.

[0036] Achieving of the Bragg regime of a diffraction grating is usually determined by Klein parameter Q:

Q = 2 .pi..lamda. d n .LAMBDA. 2 , ##EQU00002##

where d is a thickness of the grating, .lamda. is the wavelength of light, A is the grating period, and n is the refractive index of the recording medium. As a rule, Bragg conditions are achieved if Q>>1, typically, Q>10. Thus, to meet Bragg conditions, thickness of diffraction grating should be higher than some value determined by parameters of grating, recording medium and light. Because of this, VBG are also called thick gratings. On the contrary, gratings with Q<1 are considered thin, which typically demonstrates many diffraction orders (Raman-Nath diffraction regime).

Definitions

[0037] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. All patents and publications referred to herein are incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0038] When ranges are used herein to describe, for example, physical or chemical properties such as molecular weight or chemical formulae, all combinations and subcombinations of ranges and specific embodiments therein are intended to be included. Use of the term “about” when referring to a number or a numerical range means that the number or numerical range referred to is an approximation within experimental variability (or within statistical experimental error), and thus the number or numerical range may vary. The variation is typically from 0% to 15%, or from 0% to 10%, or from 0% to 5% of the stated number or numerical range. The term “including” (and related terms such as “comprise” or “comprises” or “having” or “including”) includes those embodiments such as, for example, an embodiment of any composition of matter, method or process that “consist of” or “consist essentially of” the described features.

[0039] As used herein, the term “light source” refers to any source of electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. In some embodiments, a light source can be a laser of a particular wavelength.

[0040] As used herein, the term “photoinitiating light source” refers to a light source that activates a photoinitiator, a photoactive polymerizable material, or both. Photoiniating light sources include recording light, but are not so limited.

[0041] As used herein, the term “spatial light intensity” refers to a light intensity distribution or patterns of varying light intensity within a given volume of space.

[0042] As used herein, the terms “volume Bragg grating,” “volume holographic grating,” “holographic grating,” and “hologram,” are interchangeably used to refer to a recorded interference pattern formed when a signal beam and a reference beam interfere with each other. In some embodiments, and in cases where digital data is recorded, the signal beam is encoded with a spatial light modulator.

[0043] As used herein, the term “holographic recording” refers to a holographic grating after it is recorded in the holographic recording medium.

[0044] As used herein, the term “holographic recording medium” refers to an article that is capable of recording and storing, in three dimensions, one or more holographic gratings. In some embodiments, the term refers to an article that is capable of recording and storing, in three dimensions, one or more holographic gratings as one or more pages as patterns of varying refractive index imprinted into an article.

[0045] As used herein, the term “data page” or “page” refers to the conventional meaning of data page as used with respect to holography. For example, a data page may be a page of data, one or more pictures, etc., to be recorded in a holographic recording medium, such as an article described herein.

[0046] As used herein, the term “recording light” refers to a light source used to record into a holographic medium. The spatial light intensity pattern of the recording light is what is recorded. Thus, if the recording light is a simple noncoherent beam of light, then a waveguide may be created, or if it is two interfering laser beams, then interference patterns will be recorded.

[0047] As used herein, the term “recording data” refers to storing holographic representations of one or more pages as patterns of varying refractive index.

[0048] As used herein, the term “reading data” refers to retrieving data stored as holographic representations.

[0049] As used herein, the term “exposure” refers to when a holographic recording medium was exposed to recording light, e.g., when the holographic grating was recorded in the medium.

[0050] As used herein, the terms “time period of exposure” and “exposure time” refer interchangeably to how long the holographic recording medium was exposed to recording light, e.g., how long the recording light was on during the recording of a holographic grating in the holographic recording medium. “Exposure time” can refer to the time required to record a single hologram or the cumulative time for recording a plurality of holograms in a given volume.

[0051] As used herein, the term “schedule” refers to the pattern, plan, scheme, sequence, etc., of the exposures relative to the cumulative exposure time in recording holographic gratings in a medium. In general, the schedule allows one to predict the time (or light energy) needed for each single exposure, in a set of plural exposures, to give a predetermined diffraction efficiency.

[0052] As used herein, the term “function” when used with the term “schedule” refers to a graphical plot or mathematical expression that defines or describes a schedule of exposures versus cumulative exposure time in recording plural holographic gratings.

[0053] As used herein, the term “substantially linear function” when used with the term “schedule” refers to a graphical plot of the schedule of exposures versus exposure time that provides a straight line or substantially a straight line.

[0054] As used herein, the term “support matrix” refers to the material, medium, substance, etc., in which the polymerizable component is dissolved, dispersed, embedded, enclosed, etc. In some embodiments, the support matrix is typically a low T.sub.g polymer. The polymer may be organic, inorganic, or a mixture of the two. Without being particularly limited, the polymer may be a thermoset or thermoplastic.

[0055] As used herein, the term “different form” refers to an article of the present disclosure being processed to form a product having a different form such as processing an article comprising a block of material, powder of material, chips of material, etc., into a molded product, a sheet, a free flexible film, a stiff card, a flexible card, an extruded product, a film deposited on a substrate, etc.

[0056] As used herein, the term “particle material” refers to a material that is made by grinding, shredding, fragmenting or otherwise subdividing an article into smaller components or to a material that is comprised of small components such as a powder.

[0057] As used herein, the term “free flexible film” refers to a thin sheet of flexible material that maintains its form without being supported on a substrate. Examples of free flexible films include, without limitation, various types of plastic wraps used in food storage.

[0058] As used herein, the term “stiff article” refers to an article that may crack or crease when bent. Stiff articles include, without limitation, plastic credit cards, DVDs, transparencies, wrapping paper, shipping boxes, etc.

[0059] As used herein, the term “volatile compound” refers to any chemical with a high vapor pressure and/or a boiling point below about 150.degree. C. Examples of volatile compounds include: acetone, methylene chloride, toluene, etc. An article, mixture or component is “volatile compound free” if the article, mixture or component does not include a volatile compound.

[0060] As used herein, the term “oligomer” refers to a polymer having a limited number of repeating units, for example, but without limitation, approximately 30 repeat units or less, or any large molecule able to diffuse at least about 100 nm in approximately 2 minutes at room temperature when dissolved in an article of the present disclosure. Such oligomers may contain one or more polymerizable groups whereby the polymerizable groups may be the same or different from other possible monomers in the polymerizable component. Furthermore, when more than one polymerizable group is present on the oligomer, they may be the same or different. Additionally, oligomers may be dendritic. Oligomers are considered herein to be photoactive monomers, although they are sometimes referred to as “photoactive oligomer(s)”.

[0061] As used herein, the term “photopolymerization” refers to any polymerization reaction caused by exposure to a photoinitiating light source.

[0062] As used herein, the term “resistant to further polymerization” refers to the unpolymerized portion of the polymerizable component having a deliberately controlled and substantially reduced rate of polymerization when not exposed to a photoinitiating light source such that dark reactions are minimized, reduced, diminished, eliminated, etc. A substantial reduction in the rate of polymerization of the unpolymerized portion of the polymerizable component according to the present disclosure can be achieved by any suitable composition, compound, molecule, method, mechanism, etc., or any combination thereof, including using one or more of the following: (1) a polymerization retarder; (2) a polymerization inhibitor; (3) a chain transfer agent; (4) metastable reactive centers; (5) a light or heat labile phototerminator; (6) photo-acid generators, photo-base generators or photogenerated radicals; (7) polarity or solvation effects; (8) counter ion effects; and (9) changes in monomer reactivity.

[0063] As used herein, the term “substantially reduced rate” refers to a lowering of the polymerization rate to a rate approaching zero, and ideally a rate of zero, within seconds after the photoinitiating light source is off or absent. The rate of polymerization should typically be reduced enough to prevent the loss in fidelity of previously recorded holograms.

[0064] As used herein, the term “dark reaction” refers to any polymerization reaction that occurs in absence of a photoinitiating light source. In some embodiments, and without limitation, dark reactions can deplete unused monomer, can cause loss of dynamic range, can cause noise gratings, can cause stray light gratings, or can cause unpredictability in the scheduling used for recording additional holograms.

[0065] As used herein, the term “free radical polymerization” refers to any polymerization reaction that is initiated by any molecule comprising a free radical or radicals.

[0066] As used herein, the term “cationic polymerization” refers to any polymerization reaction that is initiated by any molecule comprising a cationic moiety or moieties.

[0067] As used herein, the term “anionic polymerization” refers to any polymerization reaction that is initiated by any molecule comprising an anionic moiety or moieties.

[0068] As used herein, the term “photoinitiator” refers to the conventional meaning of the term photoinitiator and also refers to sensitizers and dyes. In general, a photoinitiator causes the light initiated polymerization of a material, such as a photoactive oligomer or monomer, when the material containing the photoinitiator is exposed to light of a wavelength that activates the photoinitiator, e.g., a photoinitiating light source. The photoinitiator may refer to a combination of components, some of which individually are not light sensitive, yet in combination are capable of curing the photoactive oligomer or monomer, examples of which include a dye/amine, a sensitizer/iodonium salt, a dye/borate salt, etc.

[0069] As used herein, the term “photoinitiator component” refers to a single photoinitiator or a combination of two or more photoinitiators. For example, two or more photoinitiators may be used in the photoinitiator component of the present disclosure to allow recording at two or more different wavelengths of light.

[0070] As used herein, the term “polymerizable component” refers to one or more photoactive polymerizable materials, and possibly one or more additional polymerizable materials, e.g., monomers and/or oligomers, that are capable of forming a polymer.

[0071] As used herein, the term “polymerizable moiety” refers to a chemical group capable of participating in a polymerization reaction, at any level, for example, initiation, propagation, etc. Polymerizable moieties include, but are not limited to, addition polymerizable moieties and condensation polymerizable moieties. Polymerizable moieties include, but are not limited to, double bonds, triple bonds, and the like.

[0072] As used herein, the term “photoactive polymerizable material” refers to a monomer, an oligomer and combinations thereof that polymerize in the presence of a photoinitiator that has been activated by being exposed to a photoinitiating light source, e.g., recording light. In reference to the functional group that undergoes curing, the photoactive polymerizable material comprises at least one such functional group. It is also understood that there exist photoactive polymerizable materials that are also photoinitiators, such as N-methylmaleimide, derivatized acetophenones, etc., and that in such a case, it is understood that the photoactive monomer and/or oligomer of the present disclosure may also be a photoinitiator.

[0073] As used herein, the term “photopolymer” refers to a polymer formed by one or more photoactive polymerizable materials, and possibly one or more additional monomers and/or oligomers.

[0074] As used herein, the term “polymerization retarder” refers to one or more compositions, compounds, molecules, etc., that are capable of slowing, reducing, etc., the rate of polymerization while the photoinitiating light source is off or absent, or inhibiting the polymerization of the polymerizable component when the photoinitiating light source is off or absent. A polymerization retarder is typically slow to react with a radical (compared to an inhibitor), thus while the photoinitiating light source is on, polymerization continues at a reduced rate because some of the radicals are effectively terminated by the retarder. In some embodiments, at high enough concentrations, a polymerization retarder can potentially behave as a polymerization inhibitor. In some embodiments, it is desirable to be within the concentration range that allows for retardation of polymerization to occur, rather than inhibition of polymerization.

[0075] As used herein, the term “polymerization inhibitor” refers to one or more compositions, compounds, molecules, etc., that are capable of inhibiting or substantially inhibiting the polymerization of the polymerizable component when the photoinitiating light source is on or off. Polymerization inhibitors typically react very quickly with radicals and effectively stop a polymerization reaction. Inhibitors cause an inhibition time during which little to no photopolymer forms, e.g., only very small chains. Typically, photopolymerization occurs only after nearly 100% of the inhibitor is reacted.

[0076] As used herein, the term “chain transfer agent” refers to one or more compositions, compounds, molecules, etc. that are capable of interrupting the growth of a polymeric molecular chain by formation of a new radical that may react as a new nucleus for forming a new polymeric molecular chain. Typically, chain transfer agents cause the formation of a higher proportion of shorter polymer chains, relative to polymerization reactions that occur in the absence of chain transfer agents. In some embodiments, certain chain transfer agents can behave as retarders or inhibitors if they do not efficiently reinitiate polymerization.

[0077] As used herein, the term “metastable reactive centers” refers to one or more compositions, compounds, molecules, etc., that have the ability to create pseudo-living radical polymerizations with certain polymerizable components. It is also understood that infrared light or heat may be used to activate metastable reactive centers towards polymerization.

[0078] As used herein, the term “light or heat labile phototerminators” refers to one or more compositions, compounds, components, materials, molecules, etc., capable of undergoing reversible termination reactions using a light source and/or heat.

[0079] As used herein, the terms “photo-acid generators,” “photo-base generators,” and “photogenerated radicals,” refer to one or more compositions, compounds, molecules, etc., that, when exposed to a light source, generate one or more compositions, compounds, molecules, etc., that are acidic, basic, or a free radical.

[0080] As used herein, the term “polarity or solvation effects” refers to an effect or effects that the solvent or the polarity of the medium has on the polymerization rate. This effect is most pronounced for ionic polymerizations where the proximity of the counter ion to the reactive chain end influences the polymerization rate.

[0081] As used herein, the term “counter ion effects” refers to the effect that counter ion, in ionic polymerizations, has on the kinetic chain length. Good counter ions allow for very long kinetic chain lengths, whereas poor counter ions tend to collapse with the reactive chain end, thus terminating the kinetic chain (e.g., causing smaller chains to be formed).

[0082] As used herein, the term “plasticizer” refers to the conventional meaning of the term plasticizer. In general, a plasticizer is a compound added to a polymer both to facilitate processing and to increase the flexibility and/or toughness of a product by internal modification (solvation) of a polymer molecule.

[0083] As used herein, the term “thermoplastic” refers to the conventional meaning of thermoplastic, e.g., a composition, compound, substance, etc., that exhibits the property of a material, such as a high polymer, that softens when exposed to heat and generally returns to its original condition when cooled to room temperature. Examples of thermoplastics include, but are not limited to: poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride), poly(vinyl acetate), poly(styrene), poly(propylene), poly(ethylene oxide), linear nylons, linear polyesters, linear polycarbonates, linear polyurethanes, etc.

[0084] As used herein, the term “room temperature thermoplastic” refers to a thermoplastic that is solid at room temperature, e.g., will not cold flow at room temperature.

[0085] As used herein, the term “room temperature” refers to the commonly accepted meaning of room temperature.

[0086] As used herein, the term “thermoset” refers to the conventional meaning of thermoset, e.g., a composition, compound, substance, etc., that is crosslinked such that it does not have a melting temperature. Examples of thermosets are crosslinked poly(urethanes), crosslinked poly(acrylates), crosslinked poly(styrene), etc.

[0087] Unless otherwise stated, the chemical structures depicted herein are intended to include compounds which differ only in the presence of one or more isotopically enriched atoms. For example, compounds where one or more hydrogen atoms is replaced by deuterium or tritium, or where one or more carbon atoms is replaced by .sup.13C- or .sup.14C-enriched carbons, are within the scope of this disclosure.

[0088] “Alkyl” refers to a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain radical consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms, containing no unsaturation, having from one to ten carbon atoms (e.g., (C.sub.1-10)alkyl or C.sub.1-10 alkyl). Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “1 to 10” refers to each integer in the given range–e.g., “1 to 10 carbon atoms” means that the alkyl group may consist of 1 carbon atom, 2 carbon atoms, 3 carbon atoms, etc., up to and including 10 carbon atoms, although the definition is also intended to cover the occurrence of the term “alkyl” where no numerical range is specifically designated. Typical alkyl groups include, but are in no way limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl isobutyl, tertiary butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, hexyl, septyl, octyl, nonyl and decyl. The alkyl moiety may be attached to the rest of the molecule by a single bond, such as for example, methyl (Me), ethyl (Et), n-propyl (Pr), 1-methylethyl (isopropyl), n-butyl, n-pentyl, 1,1-dimethylethyl (t-butyl) and 3-methylhexyl. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an alkyl group is optionally substituted by one or more of substituents which are independently heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2 where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0089] “Alkylaryl” refers to an -(alkyl)aryl radical where aryl and alkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for aryl and alkyl respectively.

[0090] “Alkylhetaryl” refers to an -(alkyl)hetaryl radical where hetaryl and alkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for aryl and alkyl respectively.

[0091] “Alkylheterocycloalkyl” refers to an -(alkyl) heterocyclyl radical where alkyl and heterocycloalkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for heterocycloalkyl and alkyl respectively.

[0092] An “alkene” moiety refers to a group consisting of at least two carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon double bond, and an “alkyne” moiety refers to a group consisting of at least two carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. The alkyl moiety, whether saturated or unsaturated, may be branched, straight chain, or cyclic.

[0093] “Alkenyl” refers to a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain radical group consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms, containing at least one double bond, and having from two to ten carbon atoms (e.g., (C.sub.2-10)alkenyl or C.sub.2-10 alkenyl). Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “2 to 10” refers to each integer in the given range–e.g., “2 to 10 carbon atoms” means that the alkenyl group may consist of 2 carbon atoms, 3 carbon atoms, etc., up to and including 10 carbon atoms. The alkenyl moiety may be attached to the rest of the molecule by a single bond, such as for example, ethenyl (e.g., vinyl), prop-1-enyl (e.g., allyl), but-1-enyl, pent-1-enyl and penta-1,4-dienyl. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an alkenyl group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which are independently alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0094] “Alkenyl-cycloalkyl” refers to an -(alkenyl)cycloalkyl radical where alkenyl and cycloalkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for alkenyl and cycloalkyl respectively.

[0095] “Alkynyl” refers to a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain radical group consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms, containing at least one triple bond, having from two to ten carbon atoms (e.g., (C.sub.2-10)alkynyl or C.sub.2-10 alkynyl). Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “2 to 10” refers to each integer in the given range–e.g., “2 to 10 carbon atoms” means that the alkynyl group may consist of 2 carbon atoms, 3 carbon atoms, etc., up to and including 10 carbon atoms. The alkynyl may be attached to the rest of the molecule by a single bond, for example, ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl, pentynyl and hexynyl. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an alkynyl group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0096] “Alkynyl-cycloalkyl” refers to an -(alkynyl)cycloalkyl radical where alkynyl and cycloalkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for alkynyl and cycloalkyl respectively.

[0097] “Carboxaldehyde” refers to a –(C.dbd.O)H radical.

[0098] “Carboxyl” refers to a –(C.dbd.O)OH radical.

[0099] “Cyano” refers to a –CN radical.

[0100] “Cycloalkyl” refers to a monocyclic or polycyclic radical that contains only carbon and hydrogen, and may be saturated, or partially unsaturated. Cycloalkyl groups include groups having from 3 to 10 ring atoms (e.g. (C.sub.3-10)cycloalkyl or C.sub.3-10 cycloalkyl). Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “3 to 10” refers to each integer in the given range–e.g., “3 to 10 carbon atoms” means that the cycloalkyl group may consist of 3 carbon atoms, etc., up to and including 10 carbon atoms. Illustrative examples of cycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to the following moieties: cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, cyclononyl, cyclodecyl, norbornyl, and the like. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, a cycloalkyl group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0101] “Cycloalkyl-alkenyl” refers to a -(cycloalkyl)alkenyl radical where cycloalkyl and alkenyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for cycloalkyl and alkenyl, respectively.

[0102] “Cycloalkyl-heterocycloalkyl” refers to a -(cycloalkyl)heterocycloalkyl radical where cycloalkyl and heterocycloalkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for cycloalkyl and heterocycloalkyl, respectively.

[0103] “Cycloalkyl-heteroaryl” refers to a -(cycloalkyl)heteroaryl radical where cycloalkyl and heteroaryl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for cycloalkyl and heteroaryl, respectively.

[0104] The term “alkoxy” refers to the group –O-alkyl, including from 1 to 8 carbon atoms of a straight, branched, cyclic configuration and combinations thereof attached to the parent structure through an oxygen. Examples include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, cyclopropyloxy and cyclohexyloxy. “Lower alkoxy” refers to alkoxy groups containing one to six carbons.

[0105] The term “substituted alkoxy” refers to alkoxy where the alkyl constituent is substituted (e.g., –O-(substituted alkyl)). Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, the alkyl moiety of an alkoxy group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0106] The term “alkoxycarbonyl” refers to a group of the formula (alkoxy)(C.dbd.O)– attached through the carbonyl carbon where the alkoxy group has the indicated number of carbon atoms. Thus a (C.sub.1-6)alkoxycarbonyl group is an alkoxy group having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms attached through its oxygen to a carbonyl linker. “Lower alkoxycarbonyl” refers to an alkoxycarbonyl group where the alkoxy group is a lower alkoxy group.

[0107] The term “substituted alkoxycarbonyl” refers to the group (substituted alkyl)-O–C(O)– where the group is attached to the parent structure through the carbonyl functionality. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, the alkyl moiety of an alkoxycarbonyl group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0108] “Acyl” refers to the groups (alkyl)-C(O)–, (aryl)-C(O)–, (heteroaryl)-C(O)–, (heteroalkyl)-C(O)– and (heterocycloalkyl)-C(O)–, where the group is attached to the parent structure through the carbonyl functionality. If the R radical is heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, the hetero ring or chain atoms contribute to the total number of chain or ring atoms. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, the alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl moiety of the acyl group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which are independently alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.b (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0109] “Acyloxy” refers to a R(C.dbd.O)O– radical where R is alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heteroalkyl or heterocycloalkyl, which are as described herein. If the R radical is heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl, the hetero ring or chain atoms contribute to the total number of chain or ring atoms. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, the R of an acyloxy group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0110] “Amino” or “amine” refers to a –N(R.sup.a).sub.2 radical group, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl, unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification. When a –N(R.sup.a).sub.2 group has two R.sup.a substituents other than hydrogen, they can be combined with the nitrogen atom to form a 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-membered ring. For example, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2 is intended to include, but is not limited to, 1-pyrrolidinyl and 4-morpholinyl. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an amino group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0111] The term “substituted amino” also refers to N-oxides of the groups –NHR.sup.d, and NR.sup.dR.sup.d each as described above. N-oxides can be prepared by treatment of the corresponding amino group with, for example, hydrogen peroxide or m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid.

[0112] “Amide” or “amido” refers to a chemical moiety with formula –C(O)N(R).sub.2 or –NHC(O)R, where R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl (bonded through a ring carbon) and heteroalicyclic (bonded through a ring carbon), each of which moiety may itself be optionally substituted. The R.sup.2 of –N(R).sub.2 of the amide may optionally be taken together with the nitrogen to which it is attached to form a 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-membered ring. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an amido group is optionally substituted independently by one or more of the substituents as described herein for alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocycloalkyl. An amide may be an amino acid or a peptide molecule attached to a compound disclosed herein, thereby forming a prodrug. The procedures and specific groups to make such amides are known to those of skill in the art and can readily be found in seminal sources such as Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3.sup.m Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y., 1999, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0113] “Aromatic” or “aryl” or “Ar” refers to an aromatic radical with six to ten ring atoms (e.g., C.sub.6-C.sub.10 aromatic or C.sub.6-C.sub.10 aryl) which has at least one ring having a conjugated pi electron system which is carbocyclic (e.g., phenyl, fluorenyl, and naphthyl). Bivalent radicals formed from substituted benzene derivatives and having the free valences at ring atoms are named as substituted phenylene radicals. Bivalent radicals derived from univalent polycyclic hydrocarbon radicals whose names end in “-yl” by removal of one hydrogen atom from the carbon atom with the free valence are named by adding “-idene” to the name of the corresponding univalent radical, e.g., a naphthyl group with two points of attachment is termed naphthylidene. Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “6 to 10” refers to each integer in the given range; e.g., “6 to 10 ring atoms” means that the aryl group may consist of 6 ring atoms, 7 ring atoms, etc., up to and including 10 ring atoms. The term includes monocyclic or fused-ring polycyclic (e.g., rings which share adjacent pairs of ring atoms) groups. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an aryl moiety is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which are independently alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl. It is understood that a substituent R attached to an aromatic ring at an unspecified position, (e.g.:

STR00023

includes one or more, and up to the maximum number of possible substituents.

[0114] The term “aryloxy” refers to the group –O-aryl.

[0115] The term “substituted aryloxy” refers to aryloxy where the aryl substituent is substituted (e.g., –O-(substituted aryl)). Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, the aryl moiety of an aryloxy group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0116] “Aralkyl” or “arylalkyl” refers to an (aryl)alkyl-radical where aryl and alkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for aryl and alkyl respectively.

[0117] “Ester” refers to a chemical radical of formula –COOR, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl (bonded through a ring carbon) and heteroalicyclic (bonded through a ring carbon). The procedures and specific groups to make esters are known to those of skill in the art and can readily be found in seminal sources such as Greene and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3.sup.rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y., 1999, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, an ester group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0118] “Fluoroalkyl” refers to an alkyl radical, as defined above, that is substituted by one or more fluoro radicals, as defined above, for example, trifluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 1-fluoromethyl-2-fluoroethyl, and the like. The alkyl part of the fluoroalkyl radical may be optionally substituted as defined above for an alkyl group.

[0119] “Halo,” “halide,” or, alternatively, “halogen” is intended to mean fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo. The terms “haloalkyl,” “haloalkenyl,” “haloalkynyl,” and “haloalkoxy” include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl and alkoxy structures that are substituted with one or more halo groups or with combinations thereof. For example, the terms “fluoroalkyl” and “fluoroalkoxy” include haloalkyl and haloalkoxy groups, respectively, in which the halo is fluorine.

[0120] “Heteroalkyl,” “heteroalkenyl,” and “heteroalkynyl” refer to optionally substituted alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl radicals and which have one or more skeletal chain atoms selected from an atom other than carbon, e.g., oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus or combinations thereof. A numerical range may be given–e.g., C.sub.1-C.sub.4 heteroalkyl which refers to the chain length in total, which in this example is 4 atoms long. A heteroalkyl group may be substituted with one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, thioxo, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0121] “Heteroalkylaryl” refers to an -(heteroalkyl)aryl radical where heteroalkyl and aryl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for heteroalkyl and aryl, respectively.

[0122] “Heteroalkylheteroaryl” refers to an -(heteroalkyl)heteroaryl radical where heteroalkyl and heteroaryl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for heteroalkyl and heteroaryl, respectively.

[0123] “Heteroalkylheterocycloalkyl” refers to an -(heteroalkyl)heterocycloalkyl radical where heteroalkyl and heterocycloalkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for heteroalkyl and heterocycloalkyl, respectively.

[0124] “Heteroalkylcycloalkyl” refers to an -(heteroalkyl)cycloalkyl radical where heteroalkyl and cycloalkyl are as disclosed herein and which are optionally substituted by one or more of the substituents described as suitable substituents for heteroalkyl and cycloalkyl, respectively.

[0125] “Heteroaryl” or “heteroaromatic” or “HetAr” refers to a 5- to 18-membered aromatic radical (e.g., C.sub.5-C.sub.13 heteroaryl) that includes one or more ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and which may be a monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic or tetracyclic ring system. Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “5 to 18” refers to each integer in the given range–e.g., “5 to 18 ring atoms” means that the heteroaryl group may consist of 5 ring atoms, 6 ring atoms, etc., up to and including 18 ring atoms. Bivalent radicals derived from univalent heteroaryl radicals whose names end in “-yl” by removal of one hydrogen atom from the atom with the free valence are named by adding “-idene” to the name of the corresponding univalent radical–e.g., a pyridyl group with two points of attachment is a pyridylidene. A N-containing “heteroaromatic” or “heteroaryl” moiety refers to an aromatic group in which at least one of the skeletal atoms of the ring is a nitrogen atom. The polycyclic heteroaryl group may be fused or non-fused. The heteroatom(s) in the heteroaryl radical are optionally oxidized. One or more nitrogen atoms, if present, are optionally quaternized. The heteroaryl may be attached to the rest of the molecule through any atom of the ring(s). Examples of heteroaryls include, but are not limited to, azepinyl, acridinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzindolyl, 1,3-benzodioxolyl, benzofuranyl, benzooxazolyl, benzo[d]thiazolyl, benzothiadiazolyl, benzo[b][1,4]dioxepinyl, benzo[b][1,4]oxazinyl, 1,4-benzodioxanyl, benzonaphthofuranyl, benzoxazolyl, benzodioxolyl, benzodioxinyl, benzoxazolyl, benzopyranyl, benzopyranonyl, benzofuranyl, benzofuranonyl, benzofurazanyl, benzothiazolyl, benzothienyl(benzothiophenyl), benzothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidinyl, benzotriazolyl, benzo[4,6]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinyl, carbazolyl, cinnolinyl, cyclopenta[d]pyrimidinyl, 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinyl, 5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]quinazolinyl, 5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]cinnolinyl, 6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-c]pyridazinyl, dibenzofuranyl, dibenzothiophenyl, furanyl, furazanyl, furanonyl, furo[3,2-c]pyridinyl, 5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[d]pyrimidinyl, 5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[d]pyridazinyl, 5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[d]pyridinyl, isothiazolyl, imidazolyl, indazolyl, indolyl, indazolyl, isoindolyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, isoquinolyl, indolizinyl, isoxazolyl, 5,8-methano-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazolinyl, naphthyridinyl, 1,6-naphthyridinonyl, oxadiazolyl, 2-oxoazepinyl, oxazolyl, oxiranyl, 5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[h]quinazolinyl, 1-phenyl-1H-pyrrolyl, phenazinyl, phenothiazinyl, phenoxazinyl, phthalazinyl, pteridinyl, purinyl, pyranyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinyl, pyridinyl, pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidinyl, pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrrolyl, quinazolinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazolinyl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinyl, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinyl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,5-c]pyridazinyl, thiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, thiapyranyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, triazinyl, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinyl, thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidinyl, thieno[2,3-c]pyridinyl, and thiophenyl (e.g., thienyl). Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, a heteroaryl moiety is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which are independently: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, thioxo, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0126] Substituted heteroaryl also includes ring systems substituted with one or more oxide (–O–) substituents, such as, for example, pyridinyl N-oxides.

[0127] “Heteroarylalkyl” refers to a moiety having an aryl moiety, as described herein, connected to an alkylene moiety, as described herein, where the connection to the remainder of the molecule is through the alkylene group.

[0128] “Heterocycloalkyl” refers to a stable 3- to 18-membered non-aromatic ring radical that comprises two to twelve carbon atoms and from one to six heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Whenever it appears herein, a numerical range such as “3 to 18” refers to each integer in the given range–e.g., “3 to 18 ring atoms” means that the heterocycloalkyl group may consist of 3 ring atoms, 4 ring atoms, etc., up to and including 18 ring atoms. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, the heterocycloalkyl radical is a monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic or tetracyclic ring system, which may include fused or bridged ring systems. The heteroatoms in the heterocycloalkyl radical may be optionally oxidized. One or more nitrogen atoms, if present, are optionally quaternized. The heterocycloalkyl radical is partially or fully saturated. The heterocycloalkyl may be attached to the rest of the molecule through any atom of the ring(s). Examples of such heterocycloalkyl radicals include, but are not limited to, dioxolanyl, thienyl[1,3]dithianyl, decahydroisoquinolyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, morpholinyl, octahydroindolyl, octahydroisoindolyl, 2-oxopiperazinyl, 2-oxopiperidinyl, 2-oxopyrrolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, 4-piperidonyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, quinuclidinyl, thiazolidinyl, tetrahydrofuryl, trithianyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thiomorpholinyl, thiamorpholinyl, 1-oxo-thiomorpholinyl, and 1,1-dioxo-thiomorpholinyl. Unless stated otherwise specifically in the specification, a heterocycloalkyl moiety is optionally substituted by one or more substituents which independently are: alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, thioxo, trimethylsilanyl, –OR.sup.a, –SR.sup.a, –OC(O)–R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)R.sup.a, –C(O)OR.sup.a, –C(O)SR.sup.a, –SC(O)R.sup.a, –OC(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)OR.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a, –N(R.sup.a)C(O)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, N(R.sup.a)C(NR.sup.a)N(R.sup.a).sub.2, –N(R.sup.a)S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tOR.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a).sub.2 (where t is 1 or 2), –S(O).sub.tN(R.sup.a)C(O)R.sup.a (where t is 1 or 2), or PO.sub.3(R.sup.a).sub.2, where each R.sup.a is independently hydrogen, alkyl, fluoroalkyl, carbocyclyl, carbocyclylalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, heteroaryl or heteroarylalkyl.

[0129] “Heterocycloalkyl” also includes bicyclic ring systems where one non-aromatic ring, usually with 3 to 7 ring atoms, contains at least 2 carbon atoms in addition to 1-3 heteroatoms independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen, as well as combinations including at least one of the foregoing heteroatoms; and the other ring, usually with 3 to 7 ring atoms, optionally contains 1-3 heteroatoms independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen and is not aromatic.

[0130] “Nitro” refers to the –NO.sub.2 radical.

[0131] “Oxa” refers to the –O– radical.

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