Intel Patent | Gesture recognition radar systems and methods

Patent: Gesture recognition radar systems and methods

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Publication Number: 20210103031

Publication Date: 20210408

Applicant: Intel

Abstract

In a recognition method, movement characteristics of an object are determined based on sensor information; image information of the object is determined based on the sensor information; and one or more gesture recognition operations are performed based on the movement characteristics and the image information to generate gesture recognition information. The recognition method may further include determining one or more physical characteristics of the object based on the image information; performing one or more physical characteristic pattern recognition operations based on the one or more physical characteristics to generate pattern recognition information; and generating a recognition output signal based on the gesture recognition information and the pattern recognition information.

Claims

1-37. (canceled)

  1. A recognition method, comprising: determining movement characteristics of an object based on sensor information; determining image information of the object based on the sensor information; and performing one or more gesture recognition operations based on the movement characteristics and the image information to generate gesture recognition information.

  2. The recognition method of claim 38, further comprising: determining one or more physical characteristics of the object based on the image information; performing one or more physical characteristic pattern recognition operations based on the one or more physical characteristics to generate pattern recognition information; and generating a recognition output signal based on the gesture recognition information and the pattern recognition information

  3. The recognition method of any of the above claims, wherein the one or more gesture recognition operations comprise comparing detected gesture data to stored gestured data to generate the gesture recognition information.

  4. The recognition method of claim 39, wherein the one or more physical characteristic pattern recognition operations comprise comparing detected characteristic data to stored characteristic data to generate the pattern recognition information.

  5. The recognition method of claim 38, wherein the sensor information is generated by a radar sensor configured to radiate one or more radar signals and detect one or more reflected signals reflected by the object.

  6. The recognition method of claim 39, wherein the one or more physical characteristics comprise dielectric information of the object.

  7. The recognition method of claim 42, wherein the one or more physical characteristics comprise dielectric information of the object, the dielectric information including dielectric constant data corresponding to one or more frequencies of the one or more radar signals.

  8. The recognition method of claim 42, wherein the radar sensor is millimeter wave radar sensor.

  9. The recognition method of claim 42, wherein the radar sensor is configured to radiate the one or more radar signals at a frequency of about 24 GHz to about 300 GHz.

  10. The recognition method of claim 38, wherein the image information is further determined based on the movement characteristics.

  11. The recognition method of claim 39, further comprising authenticating a user of a device based on the recognition output signal.

  12. The recognition method of claim 39, further comprising generating a control signal configured to control an external device based on the recognition output signal.

  13. A method, comprising: determining a physical characteristic of an object based on a detected image of the object; recognizing a gesture performed by the object based on a detected movement of the object; and generating an output signal based on the physical characteristic and the recognized gesture.

  14. The method of claim 50, further comprising: sensing the object using a radar sensor to generate radar information, wherein the detected image and the detected movement are determined based on the radar information.

  15. The method of claim 51, wherein the radar sensor is configured to radiate one or more radar signals and detect one or more reflected signals reflected by the object to generate the radar information.

  16. A recognition device, comprising: radar circuitry that is configured to sense an object to generate radar information; and a recognition processor that is configured to: determine a physical characteristic of the object based on the radar information; recognize a gesture performed by the object based on radar information; and generate an output signal based on the physical characteristic and the recognized gesture.

  17. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the recognition processor is further configured to: detect an image of the object based the radar information, wherein the physical characteristic of the object is determined based on the detected image; and detect a movement of the object based on the radar information, wherein the gesture is recognized based on the detected movement.

  18. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the radar circuitry is configured to radiate millimeter wave radar signals.

  19. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the radar sensor is configured to radiate the one or more radar signals at a frequency of about 24 GHz to about 300 GHz.

  20. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the physical characteristic comprises dielectric information of the object.

  21. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the physical characteristic comprises dielectric information of the object, the dielectric information including dielectric constant data corresponding to one or more frequencies of one or more radar signals.

  22. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the recognition processor is further configured to authenticate a user of a device based on the output signal.

  23. The recognition device of claim 53, wherein the recognition processor is further configured to control an external device based on the output signal.

Description

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This patent application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/525,455, filed Jun. 27, 2017, entitled “GESTURE RECOGNITION RADAR SYSTEMS AND METHODS,” which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS/FIGURES

[0002] The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated herein and form a part of the specification, illustrate the aspects of the present disclosure and, together with the description, further serve to explain the principles of the aspects and to enable a person skilled in the pertinent art to make and use the aspects.

[0003] FIG. 1 illustrates a communication device having a radar system according to an exemplary aspects of the present disclosure.

[0004] FIG. 2 illustrates a radar system according to exemplary aspects of the present disclosure.

[0005] FIG. 3 illustrates a gesture recognition processor according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure.

[0006] FIG. 4 illustrates an angle-of-arrival calculation according to exemplary aspects of the present disclosure.

[0007] FIG. 5 illustrates a flowchart of a gesture and/or physical characteristic recognition method according to exemplary aspects of the present disclosure.

[0008] The exemplary aspects of the present disclosure will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. The drawing in which an element first appears is typically indicated by the leftmost digit(s) in the corresponding reference number.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0009] In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the aspects of the present disclosure. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the aspects, including structures, systems, and methods, may be practiced without these specific details. The description and representation herein are the common means used by those experienced or skilled in the art to most effectively convey the substance of their work to others skilled in the art. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, and circuitry have not been described in detail to avoid unnecessarily obscuring aspects of the disclosure.

[0010] Aspects described herein generally relate to radar systems and methods, including radar systems configured for object and gesture recognition, authentication, and/or hands-free control. Aspects can also include wireless networks, wireless communications, and corresponding wireless communication devices implementing one or more radar systems. Aspects will be described for authentication operations, but the present disclosure is not limited thereto. The gesture recognition and/or physical characteristic (e.g. dielectric) recognition can be used in other deployments as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts.

[0011] Exemplary aspects relate to systems and methods for object and/or gesture recognition, authentication, and/or hands-free control operations utilizing radar implementations configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic signals. The aspects of the present disclosure will be described with reference to radar systems configured for the millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum (e.g., 24 GHz-300 GHz), but is not limited thereto. In an exemplary aspect, the radar system is a Continuous Wave (CW) radar system. In another aspect, the system is a Continuous Wave Frequency Modulated (CWFM) radar system. The aspects of the present disclosure can be applied to other radar technologies and spectrums as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts.

[0012] In exemplary aspects, a millimeter wave radar system can be configured to detect the location, distance, movement (e.g., speed, velocity, acceleration, direction of movement, etc.), orientation, and/or dimension(s) of an object. This detection can be used to recognize a specific gesture, movement, and/or pattern of movement of an object (e.g., a person).

[0013] In exemplary aspects, the millimeter wave radar system can also detect one or more physical and/or biological characteristics of the object. The physical characteristic can include, for example, one or more properties of a person’s skin, such as dielectric properties of the skin, skin depth (e.g. thickness of dermis and/or epidermis), hair thickness/width, hair follicle placement/pattern, hair color, skin color, pigment, skin texture, porosity structure of the skin, moisture level of the skin, skin blemishes (e.g. freckles, skin moles, etc.), temperature of the skin, and/or another skin characteristic as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts. In an exemplary aspect, the detection one or more physical and/or biological characteristics of the object, and/or the detection of the location, distance, movement, orientation, and/or dimension(s) of an object, are used to detect the proximity of human tissue (e.g. with respect to the communication device 100).

[0014] Wireless communications are expanding into communications having increased data rates (e.g., from Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11a/g to IEEE 802.11n to IEEE 802.11ac and beyond). Currently, fifth generation (5G) cellular communication and Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) standards are being introduced for wireless cellular devices and/or Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN).

[0015] Some aspects of the present disclosure relate to wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Wi-Fi networks including networks operating in accordance with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 family of standards, such as the IEEE 802.11ac, IEEE 802.11ad and IEEE 802.11ay standards, the IEEE 802.11ax study group (SG) (named DensiFi) and Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig). Other Aspects of the present disclosure pertain to mobile wireless communication devices such as the 4G and 5G cellular communication standards. The technical field more specifically pertains to radar systems and radar systems that can be implemented in communication systems.

[0016] FIG. 1 illustrates a communication device 100 according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure. The communication device 100 is configured to transmit and/or receive wireless communications based on one or more wireless technologies. For example, the communication device 100 can be configured for wireless communications conforming to, for example, one or more fifth generation (5G) cellular communication protocols, such as 5G protocols that use the 28 GHz frequency spectrum, and/or communication protocols conforming to the Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) standard, such as IEEE 802.11ad and/or IEEE 802.1 lay that use the 60 GHz frequency spectrum.

[0017] The communication device 100 is not limited to these communication protocols and can be configured for one or more additional or alternative communication protocols, such as one or more 3rd Generation Partnership Project’s (3GPP) protocols (e.g., Long-Term Evolution (LTE)), one or more wireless local area networking (WLAN) communication protocols, and/or one or more other communication protocols as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts. For example, the communication device 100 can be configured to transmit and/or receive wireless communications using one or more communication protocols that utilize the millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum (e.g., 24 GHz-300 GHz), such as WiGig (IEEE 802.11ad and/or IEEE 802.1 lay) which operates at 60 GHz, and/or one or more 5G protocols using, for example, the 28 GHz frequency spectrum. In an exemplary aspect, the communication device 100 is configured for Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) communications. In a MIMO operation, the communication device 100 may be configured to use multiple transmitting radio frequency (RF) chains (e.g. RF components and antennas) and/or multiple receiving RF chains for wireless communications, thereby increasing the capacity of the radio link.

[0018] The communication device 100 can be configured to communicate with one or more other communication devices, including, for example, one or more base stations, one or more access points, one or more other communication devices, and/or one or more other devices as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts.

[0019] The communication device 100 can include a controller 140 operably (e.g.

[0020] communicatively) coupled to one or more transceivers 105. The communication device 100 can also include one or more radar systems 180. Exemplary aspects of the radar system 180 are described with reference to FIGS. 2-5.

[0021] The transceiver(s) 105 can be configured to transmit and/or receive wireless communications via one or more wireless technologies. The transceiver 105 can include processor circuitry that is configured for transmitting and/or receiving wireless communications conforming to one or more wireless protocols. For example, the transceiver 105 can include a transmitter 110 and a receiver 120 configured for transmitting and receiving wireless communications, respectively, via one or more antennas 130. In aspects having two or more transceivers 105, the two or more transceivers 105 can have their own antenna 130, or can share a common antenna via a duplexer.

[0022] The antenna 130 can include one or more antenna elements forming an integer array of antenna elements. In an exemplary aspect, the antenna 130 is a phased array antenna that includes multiple radiating elements (antenna elements) each having a corresponding phase shifter. The antenna 130 configured as a phased array antenna can be configured to perform one or more beamforming operations that include generating beams formed by shifting the phase of the signal emitted from each radiating element to provide constructive/destructive interference so as to steer the beams in the desired direction. In an exemplary embodiment, two or more of the antenna elements of the antenna array are configured for wireless communication utilizing a MIMO configuration, and/or the communication device includes two or more antennas 130 configured for MIMO communications.

[0023] The controller 140 can include processor circuity 150 that is configured to control the overall operation of the communication device 100, such as the operation of the transceiver(s) 105. The processor circuitry 150 can be configured to control the transmitting and/or receiving of wireless communications via the transceiver(s) 105. In an exemplary aspect, the processor circuitry 150 is configured to control the radar system 180 and/or perform one or more functions and/or operations of the radar system 180 to detect the location, gesture, and movement characteristics (e.g. location, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration, direction of movement, orientation, and/or dimension(s)) of an object; and/or detect one or more physical and/or biological characteristics (e.g. dielectric properties) of the object.

[0024] The processor circuitry 150 can also be configured to perform one or more baseband processing functions (e.g., media access control (MAC), encoding/decoding, modulation/demodulation, data symbol mapping; error correction, etc.). The processor circuitry 150 can be configured to run one or more applications and/or operating systems; power management (e.g., battery control and monitoring); display settings; volume control; and/or user interactions via one or more user interfaces (e.g., keyboard, touchscreen display, microphone, speaker, etc.).

[0025] The controller 140 can further include a memory 160 that stores data and/or instructions, where when the instructions are executed by the processor circuitry 150, controls the processor circuitry 150 to perform the functions described herein. The memory 160 can store gesture recognition information, pattern recognition information, radar data and/or information, proximity information, and/or other radar system data and/or information as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts.

[0026] The memory 160 can be any well-known volatile and/or non-volatile memory, including, for example, read-only memory (ROM), random access memory (RAM), flash memory, a magnetic storage media, an optical disc, erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), and programmable read only memory (PROM). The memory 160 can be non-removable or removable, or a combination of both.

[0027] Examples of the communication device 100 include (but are not limited to) a mobile computing device (mobile device)–such as a laptop computer, a tablet computer, a mobile telephone or smartphone, a “phablet,” a personal digital assistant (PDA), and mobile media player; a wearable computing device–such as a computerized wrist watch or “smart” watch, and computerized eyeglasses; and/or internet-of-things (IoT) device. In some aspects of the present disclosure, the communication device 100 may be a stationary communication device, including, for example, a stationary computing device–such as a personal computer (PC), a desktop computer, television, smart-home device, security device (e.g., electronic/smart lock), automated teller machine, a computerized kiosk, and/or an automotive/aeronautical/maritime in-dash computer terminal.

[0028] In one or more aspects, the communication device 100 or one or more components of the communication device 100 can be additionally or alternatively configured to perform digital signal processing (e.g., using a digital signal processor (DSP)), modulation and/or demodulation (using a modulator/demodulator), a digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) and/or an analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) (using a respective DA and AD converter), an encoding/decoding (e.g., using encoders/decoders having convolution, tail-biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, and/or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality), frequency conversion (using, for example, mixers, local oscillators, and filters), Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT), preceding, and/or constellation mapping/de-mapping to transmit and/or receive wireless communications conforming to one or more wireless protocols, and/or facilitate beamforming scanning operations and/or beamforming communication operations.

[0029] The radar system 180 can be configured to detect the location and movement characteristics (e.g. location, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration, direction of movement, orientation, and/or dimension(s)) of an object; and/or detect one or more physical characteristics of the object. This location and movement detection can be used to recognize a specific gesture, movement, and/or pattern of movement of an object (e.g., a person). The physical characteristic can include (but not limited to), for example, one or more properties of a person’s skin, such as dielectric properties of the skin, skin depth (e.g. thickness of dermis and/or epidermis), hair thickness/width, hair follicle placement/pattern, hair color, skin color, pigment, skin texture, porosity structure of the skin, moisture level of the skin, skin blemishes (e.g. freckles, skin moles, etc.), and/or another skin characteristic as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts. The radar system 180 can include processor circuitry that is configured to detect the location of one or more nearby objects of the communication device 100.

[0030] Turning to FIG. 2, in an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 includes radar circuitry 205 operably (e.g. communicatively) coupled to one or more radar antennas 210. The antenna(s) 210 may include a transmitting antenna 215 and receiving antenna 220. The radar circuitry 205 is operably coupled to the communication device 100 via gesture recognition processor 200. In an aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is additionally or alternatively directly coupled to the communication device 100.

[0031] In an exemplary aspect, the transmitting antenna 215 and/or receiving antenna 220 includes one or more antenna elements forming an integer array of antenna elements. In an exemplary aspect, the antenna 215 and/or antenna 220 are a phased array antenna that includes multiple radiating elements (antenna elements) each having a corresponding phase shifter. The antennas 215 and/or 220 configured as a phased array antenna may be configured to perform one or more beamforming operations that include generating beams formed by shifting the phase of the signal emitted from each radiating element to provide constructive/destructive interference so as to steer the beams in the desired direction.

[0032] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 includes one or more radar transceivers configured to transmit and/or receive radar signals via one or more radar technologies. The transceiver can include processor circuitry that is configured for transmitting and/or receiving radar signals. In aspects having two or more transceivers, the two or more transceivers can have their own antenna 215 and/or 220, or can share a common antenna via a duplexer.

[0033] As an overview of radar systems and radar operation, a signal is first radiated from an antenna of the system. The signal radiates outwardly in space until it encounters an object. The radiated wave is scattered (e.g. a portion of the radiation enters or is transmitted through the object and a portion of the radiation is reflected by the object). The amount of radiated energy that is absorbed or transmitted through the object and how much radiated energy is reflected by the object depends on the characteristics of the object such as the size of the object, the shape of the object, and the material composition of the object. The radiated energy that is reflected back towards the transmitter can be referred to as back scatter. The reflected signal or scattered signal is received by a receiver of the radar system and processed. This processing involves extraction of information from the reflected signal, including, for example, reflected power, range, frequency, Doppler information, and/or one or more other signal characteristics as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts.

[0034] As shown in FIG. 2, in an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is configured to radiate one or more radar signals using one or more transmitting antennas or a transmitting phased array antenna 215 and the echo or the reflected signal produced by a target object 225 can be received via one or more receiving antennas or a receiving phased array antenna 220 and sensed by the radar circuitry 205. In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to emit low level radiation, such as low level radiation in a band that complies with Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or other federal governmental agency regulations (e.g., industrial, scientific, and medical radio band (ISM band) bands like 24GHz or 61GHz), but is not limited thereto and can be configured to emit higher level radiation in other aspects.

[0035] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to determine the nature of the echoed signal to determine information about the target including, for example, range, size of the target/object, material composition of the target/object, location and movement characteristics (e.g. location, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration, direction of movement, orientation, and/or dimension(s)), one or more physical and/or biological characteristics of the object (e.g. one or more properties of a person’s skin, such as dielectric properties of the skin, skin depth, thickness of dermis and/or epidermis, hair thickness/width, hair follicle placement/pattern, hair color, skin color, pigment, skin texture, porosity structure of the skin, moisture level of the skin, skin blemishes (e.g. freckles, skin moles, etc.). This location and movement detection can be used to recognize a specific gesture, movement, and/or pattern of movement of an object (e.g., a person). In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to detect the proximity of human tissue with respect to the communication device 100 based on one or more characteristics, such as the range, size of the target/object, material composition of the target/object, location and movement characteristics, and/or one or more physical and/or biological characteristics of the object.

[0036] The radar system 180 can be configured as a Continuous Wave (CW) radar system in one or more exemplary aspects. In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is a Continuous Wave Frequency Modulated (CWFM) radar system instead of a CW radar system. The radar system 180 is not limited to CW and CWFM radar systems.

[0037] In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is an electromagnetic radar system that is configured to transmit and receive signals (e g , milliliter waves) in various frequencies and in various directions. The transmitted signal reaches the object(s) 225 being detected and is reflected back to a receiver. Radar circuitry 205 of the radar system 180 can be configured to measure the difference between the amplitude and/or phase of the transmitted signal 230 and the received signal 235. Based on these measurements, the radar system 180 is configured to determine locations, velocities (or other movement characteristics) and/or dielectric values (e.g., dielectric constant) with respect to the frequency.

[0038] In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is configured to detect information (e.g. distances, velocity, dielectric constant, etc.) on three-dimensional axis in 60GHz.

[0039] In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is configured to detect gesture movements and/or patterns, and/or detected physical characteristics of the object (e.g., skin characteristics of the user). In an exemplary aspect, the gesture and physical characteristic determinations is used for one or more security and/or verification operations, such as a passcode for an electronic device (e.g., open a locked communication device). For example, the detected gesture and/or detected physical characteristics can be used to unlock/disable the security of the device similar to a passcode, pin code, fingerprint, voice recognition, or other password. In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is configured to generate one or more control instructions to control the communication device 100 and/or one or more other devices (e.g., hands-free control) based on the detected gesture movements and/or patterns, and/or detected physical characteristics of the object. For example, a gesture and/or physical characteristic can be associated with a particular individual and/or command function. In an exemplary aspect, based the detection of the gesture and/or physical characteristic, the radar system 180 is configured to generate a corresponding command to instruct the communication device 100 and/or the other device to perform an associated function. For example, a particular gestured movement/pattern (e.g., hand movement) and/or particular physical characteristic (skin characteristic) can be associated with a command. When detected, the radar system 180 performs a function associated with the command and/or instruct the communication device 100 and/or the other device to perform the function.

[0040] The use of gesture and/or physical characteristic recognition can be particularly advantageous with smaller devices (e.g., smartwatches) that have smaller input devices (e.g. touchscreens) or otherwise lack a physical input device (e.g., an IoT device) that make it difficult to use a keyed-in pass code.

[0041] In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 advantageously improves the security of a device by combining gesture movement detection (e.g., of the hand) with the recognition of one or more specific properties of person’s skin.

[0042] In one or more aspects, by implementing skin property detection, the complexity of a gesture movement may be reduced to a more basic gesture (e.g., moving a hand in front of the sensor) while maintaining a robust security protocol. For example, detection of the dielectric properties of the skin is more secure than fingerprint or face recognition (visible light) as these techniques may be more easily bypassed/deceived compared to measured skin structures (e.g. dielectric properties).

[0043] For example, individuals have different and unique skin properties, such as skin depth, hair width, hair follicle placement/pattern, skin color, pigment, skin texture, porosity structure of the skin, moisture level of the skin, skin blemishes (e.g. freckles, skin moles, etc.), and/or another skin characteristic as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the relevant arts. These properties influence the dielectric constant vs. frequency in the millimeter wave range.

[0044] In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 includes processor circuity configured to execute a super resolution algorithm. In this example, the radar system 180 can detect a moving gesture (e.g. the movement of the user’s hand). In an exemplary aspect, the super resolution algorithm is, for example, an inverse synthetic aperture radar (iSAR) algorithm, Joint Time-Frequency transform, or other algorithm. The algorithm can be configured to reconstruct the dielectric properties of the target (e.g. the dielectric properties of the user’s skin).

[0045] In an exemplary aspect, for gesture recognition, the radar system 180 is configured to perform one or more pattern recognition algorithms (e.g., machine learning) to recognize gestures (e.g., specific hand gestures) used to, for example, unlock the device, control the device and/or another device, or the like.

[0046] In an exemplary aspect, the authentication of an individual utilizes data fusion (e.g., using kalman filtering or machine learning) of a gesture signature and dielectric constant properties of a person skin.

[0047] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to generate one or more transmissions signal (e.g. chirps) and transmit the radar transmission signal via a radar transmitter phased array (e.g. antenna 215) to one or more objects 225. The object(s) 225 may be moving or stationary. One or more of the signal(s) are reflected back to the radar system 180 and received via the radar receiver phased array (e.g. antenna 220). In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry is configured to adjust configurations of the transmitter phased array (antenna 215) and/or receiver phased array (antenna 220) for the transmission and/or measuring of signals in multiple of antenna configuration (e.g. for beam forming implementation). The transmitter phase array (antenna 215) and the receiver phase array (antenna 220) can be different arrays, or formed as a single combined array.

[0048] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to generate one or more baseband signals at one or more phases and/or gains, and determine phase and/or amplitude/gain differentiations (versus frequency) between transmitted signal(s) and received signal(s).

[0049] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to generate electromagnetic signals (e.g., in the milliliter wave length domain). The generated signals can be transmitted (radiated) using the transmitter phased array (antenna 215) and the echo (i.e. the reflected signal) produced by a target (e.g. object 225) can be received via the receiver phased array (antenna 220) and sensed by the radar circuitry 205.

[0050] The radar circuitry 205 is configured to measure or otherwise determine phase and/or amplitude differences between the transmitted signals and the received signals to generate sensor information or other measurement data. The radar circuitry 205 is configured to provide the sensor information to the gesture recognition processor 200 that is configured to perform one or more gesture recognition operations for gesture recognition. For example, the radar circuitry 205 may provide the sensor information to movement and position detector 305 and/or image detector 310 of the gesture recognition processor 200 (See FIG. 3A-3B). In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to determine the phase and/or amplitude differences corresponding to each transmitted frequency and/or phased array configuration. In other aspects, a subset of the transmitted frequencies and/or phased array configurations may be determined. In an exemplary aspect, based on these measurements, the radar circuitry 205 determine locations, velocities (or other movement characteristics) and/or dielectric values (e.g., dielectric constant). In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 determine locations, velocities (or other movement characteristics) and/or dielectric values (e.g., dielectric constant) with respect to frequency.

[0051] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 determines radar information (e.g. the radar raw data) having a direct or an indirect relationship to the speed, velocity, direction, location, and/or distances of the object(s) 225. In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 is configured to extract (or otherwise determine) the phase and/or amplitude (gain) differences between transmitted and returned signals. The differences can be stored in a memory (e.g. memory 320). In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 determines the sensor information based on the radar information.

[0052] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 provides the radar information to the gesture recognition processor 200 and the gesture recognition processor 200 determines movement characteristics (e.g. locations, velocities or other movement characteristics) and/or physical characteristics (e.g. dielectric values, dielectric constant values). These determinations may be with respect to frequency. In an exemplary aspect, the gesture recognition processor 200 includes processor circuitry that is configured to perform one or more gesture recognition operation, including determining movement and/or physical characteristics of one or more objects.

[0053] In an exemplary aspect, the gesture recognition processor 200 is configured to extract (or otherwise determine) the phase and/or amplitude (gain) differences between transmitted and returned signals. The differences can be stored in a memory (e.g. memory 320).

[0054] In an exemplary aspect, the radar circuitry 205 includes a processor, such as a digital signal processor. In an exemplary aspect, the processor of the radar circuitry 205 is configured to process the phase and/or gain vs. frequency that is measured and implement, for example, an Inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) on the samples. In this example, the output of the IFFT result may correspond to the distances of objects and/or other characteristics. In an exemplary aspect, the IFFT results can also provide information about multiple objects that are located in the same direction and allow for the objects to be distinguished from each other.

[0055] In an exemplary aspect, the radar system 180 is configured as a Continuous Wave Frequency Modulated (CWFM) system, and the radar information can include frequency values related to different distance, and/or configured as a Continuous Wave (CW) system in which the radar information can include frequency values related to the speed or velocity of the object. The radar system 180 is not limited to CWFM and CW systems and can be configured as one or more other radar systems as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0056] FIG. 3 illustrates the gesture and/or physical characteristic recognition processor 200 according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure. The gesture and/or physical characteristic recognition processor can also be referred to as gesture recognition processor for brevity.

[0057] In an exemplary aspect, the gesture recognition processor 200 includes movement and position detector 305, image detector 310, gesture recognizer 315, memory 320, object characteristic detector 325, pattern recognizer 330, and processor 335.

[0058] In an exemplary aspect, the movement and position detector 305 is configured to extract (or otherwise determine) locations, velocities (or other movement characteristics) based on the sensor information (or radar information) from the radar circuitry 205. In an exemplary aspect, the movement and position detector 305 includes processor circuitry that is configured to determine locations, velocities or other movement characteristics (based on the sensor information).

[0059] In an exemplary aspect, the movement and position detector 305 is configured to extract three-dimensional (3D) information from the phase and/or amplitude measurements included in the sensor information provided by the radar circuitry 205. In an exemplary aspect, the processing of the measurements can include: distance extraction from specific direction(s); velocity extraction from specific direction(s); and/or direction scanning

[0060] In an exemplary aspect, the distance extraction uses an IFFT estimator for various locations of obstacle distances. In addition to the II-FT estimator, other methods of extracting distance and/or velocity of the object from the phase and/or amplitude measurement between the transmission signals and received signals may be used. For example, but not limited to, correlation, match filter, music algorithm or any algorithm that enables finding correlation in superposition of reflected signals in with good accuracy may be used.

[0061] In an exemplary aspect, the time period of the phase-vs-frequency of a “discrete chirp” is linearly proportional to the distance. In an exemplary aspect, the distance calculations is based on the following: [0062] Assume that we have M static reflectors, each one of them in distance L.sub.i for i=1:M [0063] The gain and phase of each reflector as: S.sub.i=A.sub.i*e.sup.j.theta..sup.i [0064] or transmission of a specific carrier frequency in frequency f, the summation of all of the reflectors is measured without the ability to distinguish between each one of them:

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