Facebook Patent | Optical assemblies having polarization volume gratings for projecting augmented reality content

Patent: Optical assemblies having polarization volume gratings for projecting augmented reality content

Drawings: Click to check drawins

Publication Number: 20210096453

Publication Date: 20210401

Applicant: Facebook

Abstract

An optical assembly for projecting light from a display includes a first optical waveguide, a reflective optical element configured, and a first in-coupler. The reflective optical element is configured to receive first light having first polarization from the display and to reflect the first light as second light having second polarization distinct from the first polarization. The first in-coupler is coupled with the first optical waveguide. The first in-coupler is configured to receive and transmit the first light. The first in-coupler is further configured to receive the second light and redirect a first portion of the second light so that the first portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide.

Claims

  1. An optical assembly for projecting light from a display, comprising: a first optical waveguide; a reflective optical element positioned to receive first light having first circular polarization and to reflect the first light as second light having second circular polarization distinct from the first circular polarization; a first in-coupler coupled with the first optical waveguide, the first in-coupler positioned to: receive from the display, and transmit toward the reflective optical element, the first light having the first circular polarization; and receive from the reflective optical element the second light having the second circular polarization and redirect a first portion of the second light so that the first portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide, wherein the reflective optical element consists of a negative meniscus lens having a convex lens surface and a concave lens surface, the convex lens surface of the negative meniscus lens coupled with a reflective surface, and the reflective optical element is positioned to focus the first light as the first light is reflected such that the second light is more collimated than the first light.

  2. The optical assembly of claim 1, wherein the first in-coupler is disposed between the display and the reflective optical element and is positioned to transmit the first light toward the reflective optical element while remaining polarization of the first light.

  3. The optical assembly of claim 1, wherein the first in-coupler is selected from the group consisting of: a liquid crystal based polarization selective element, a polarization selective element including a metasurface, a polarization selective element including a resonant structured surface, a polarization selective element including a continuous chiral layer, and a polarization selective element including a birefringent material.

  4. The optical assembly of claim 3, wherein the liquid crystal based polarization selective element is a polarization volume grating.

  5. The optical assembly of claim 3, wherein the first in-coupler is a transmission grating positioned to redirect the first portion of the second light such that the first portion of the second light enters the first optical waveguide at an incident angle that is greater than a critical angle associated with the first optical waveguide.

  6. The optical assembly of claim 3, wherein the first in-coupler is a reflective grating positioned to redirect the first portion of the second light after the second light enters the first optical waveguide, causing the first portion of the second light to impinge on an internal surface of the first optical waveguide at an incident angle that is greater than a critical angle of incidence.

  7. The optical assembly of claim 1, wherein the first in-coupler and a portion of the first optical waveguide are positioned between the display and the reflective optical element.

  8. The optical assembly of claim 1, wherein: the first in-coupler is positioned to transmit a second portion of the second light, and the first portion of the second light has a first wavelength range and the second portion of the second light has a second wavelength range distinct from the first wavelength range.

  9. The optical assembly of claim 8, further including: a second optical waveguide; and a second in-coupler coupled with the second optical waveguide, the second in-coupler positioned to: receive from the display, and transmit toward the reflective optical element, the first light having the first circular polarization; and receive the second portion of the second light and redirect the second portion of the second light so that the second portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the second optical waveguide.

  10. (canceled)

  11. The optical assembly of claim 1, further including one or more lenses between the display and the first optical waveguide, the one or more lenses including a first lens positioned to focus the first light.

  12. A method of projecting light from an electronic display, the method comprising: transmitting first light having first circular polarization from the electronic display through one or more optical components, the one or more optical components including a first in-coupler and a first optical waveguide; receiving, by a reflective optical element, the first light having the first circular polarization transmitted through the one or more optical components; reflecting, by the reflective optical element, the first light having the first circular polarization as second light having second circular polarization distinct from the first circular polarization; receiving, by the first in-coupler, the second light having the second circular polarization; redirecting, by the first in-coupler, a first portion of the second light having the first second circular polarization so that the first portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide; and focusing, by the reflective optical element, the first light as the first light is reflected such that the second light is more collimated than the first light, wherein the reflective optical element consists of a negative meniscus lens having a convex lens surface and a concave lens surface and the convex lens surface of the negative meniscus lens is coupled with a reflective surface.

  13. The method of claim 12, wherein the first in-coupler is selected from the group consisting of: a liquid crystal based polarization selective element, a polarization selective element including a metasurface, a polarization selective element including a resonant structured surface, a polarization selective element including a continuous chiral layer, and a polarization selective element including a birefringent material.

  14. The method of claim 13, wherein the liquid crystal based polarization selective element is a polarization volume grating.

  15. The method of claim 12, wherein the first in-coupler and a section of the first optical waveguide are positioned between the electronic display and the reflective optical element.

  16. The method of claim 12, further comprising: transmitting, by the first in-coupler, a second portion of the second light, wherein the first portion of the second light has a first wavelength range and the second portion of the second light has a second wavelength range distinct from the first wavelength range.

  17. The method of claim 16, wherein the one or more optical components further include a second optical waveguide and a second in-coupler coupled with the second optical waveguide, the method further comprising: receiving, with the second in-coupler, the second portion of the second light; and redirecting, with the second in-coupler, the second portion of the second light so that the second portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the second optical waveguide.

  18. A display device, comprising: a display configured to output first light having first circular polarization; a first optical waveguide; a reflective optical element positioned to receive the first light having the first circular polarization from the display and to reflect the first light as second light having second circular polarization distinct from the first circular polarization; and a first in-coupler coupled with the first optical waveguide, the first in-coupler positioned to: receive from the display, and transmit toward the reflective optical element, the first light having the first circular polarization; and receive from the reflective optical element the second light having the second circular polarization and redirect a first portion of the second light so that the first portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide; wherein the reflective optical element consists of a negative meniscus lens having a convex lens surface and a concave lens surface, the convex lens surface of the negative meniscus lens coupled with a reflective surface, and the reflective optical element is positioned to focus the first light as the first light is reflected such that the second light is more collimated than the first light.

  19. The display device of claim 18, wherein: the first light output by the display corresponds to one or more images; the first optical waveguide is further positioned to transmit light from an object outside the display device; and the display device is positioned to output a second portion of the second light from the first optical waveguide such that the second portion of the second light is combined with the light from the object such that the one or more images are perceived by a user of the display device together with the object.

  20. The display device of claim 18, further comprising one or more output couplers coupled with the first optical waveguide and positioned at a distance from the first in-coupler, wherein the one or more output couplers is positioned to: redirect the first portion of the second light out of the first optical waveguide toward an eye of a user.

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This relates generally to display devices, and more specifically to head-mounted display devices.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Head-mounted display devices (also called head-mounted displays) are gaining popularity as means for providing visual information to a user. For example, the head-mounted display devices are used for virtual reality and augmented reality operations. However, the size and weight of conventional head-mounted displays limit their applications.

[0003] Generally, head-mounted display devices with a wide field of view are desired for improved user experience. This makes it even more challenging to reduce the sizes of head-mounted display devices.

SUMMARY

[0004] Accordingly, there is a need for a compact head-mounted display devices capable of rendering images with a wide field of view to enhance users’ overall experience of augmented and/or virtual reality.

[0005] The above deficiencies and other problems associated with conventional head-mounted displays are reduced or eliminated by the disclosed optical assembly configured to direct light from a display to a user’s eye. The optical assembly has a compact configuration that provides a folded optical path for projecting images from the display to the user’s eye, thereby increasing an effective focal length for projecting the images. The increased effective focal length results in a wider field of view for a head-mounted display device employing the optical assembly.

[0006] In accordance with some embodiments, an optical assembly for projecting light from a display includes a first optical waveguide, a reflective optical element, and a first in-coupler. The reflective optical element is configured to receive first light having first polarization from the display and to reflect the first light as second light having second polarization distinct from the first polarization. The first in-coupler is coupled with the first optical waveguide. The first in-coupler is configured to receive and transmit the first light. The first in-coupler is further configured to receive the second light and redirect a first portion of the second light so that the first portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide.

[0007] In accordance with some embodiments, a method of projecting light from an electronic display includes transmitting first light having first polarization from the display through one or more optical components. The one or more optical components include a first in-coupler and a first optical waveguide. The method includes receiving, by a reflective optical element, the first light transmitted through the one or more optical components am reflecting, by the reflective optical element, the first light as second light having second polarization distinct from the first polarization. The method includes receiving, by the first in-coupler, the second light and redirecting, by the first in-coupler, a first portion of the second light so that the first portion of second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide.

[0008] In accordance with some embodiments, a display device includes a display, a first optical waveguide, and a reflective optical component. The display is configured to output first light having first polarization. The reflective optical element is configured to receive the first light from the display and to reflect the first light as second light having second polarization distinct from the first polarization. The first in-coupler is coupled with the first optical waveguide. The first in-coupler is configured to receive and transmit the first light and receive the second light and redirect a first portion of the second light so that the first portion of the second light undergoes total internal reflection inside the first optical waveguide.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0009] The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.

[0010] For a better understanding of the various described embodiments, reference should be made to the Description of Embodiments below, in conjunction with the following drawings in which like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the figures.

[0011] FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0012] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a system including a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0013] FIG. 3 is an isometric view of a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0014] FIG. 4A is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0015] FIG. 4B includes schematic diagrams illustrating a transmission polarization volume grating (Diagram (I)) and a reflective polarization volume grating (Diagram (II)), in accordance with some embodiments.

[0016] FIG. 4C is a schematic diagram illustrating the display device of FIG. 4A in an augmented reality application, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0017] FIG. 4D is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0018] FIG. 4E is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0019] FIG. 4F is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0020] FIG. 5A is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0021] FIG. 5B is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0022] FIGS. 5C-5D are schematic diagrams illustrating the display device of FIG. 5A in accordance with some embodiments.

[0023] FIG. 5E is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0024] FIG. 5F is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0025] FIGS. 5G-5H are schematic diagrams illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0026] FIG. 6A is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0027] FIGS. 6B-6C are schematic diagrams illustrating a display in accordance with some embodiments.

[0028] FIGS. 7A-7D are schematic diagrams illustrating a polarization volume grating in accordance with some embodiments.

[0029] These figures are not drawn to scale unless indicated otherwise.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0030] The present disclosure provides a head-mounted display device (or a display device) including an optical assembly for projecting augmented reality content to an eye of a user. The optical assembly includes a reflector and one or more waveguides with polarization selective in-couplers. The optical assembly is configured to receive light from a display. The light from the display corresponds to images including augmented reality content. The one or more optical waveguides of the optical assembly are configured to output at least a portion of the light toward the eye of the user. The one or more waveguides are also configured to transmit light from outside the display device, thereby combining the images from the display with a real-world view.

[0031] Reference will now be made to embodiments, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide an understanding of the various described embodiments. However, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that the various described embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, circuits, and networks have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the embodiments.

[0032] It will also be understood that, although the terms first, second, etc. are, in some instances, used herein to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by these terms. These terms are used only to distinguish one element from another. For example, a first optical waveguide could be termed a second optical waveguide, and, similarly, a second optical waveguide could be termed a first optical waveguide, without departing from the scope of the various described embodiments. The first optical waveguide and the second optical waveguide are both optical waveguide, but they are not the same optical waveguide.

[0033] The terminology used in the description of the various described embodiments herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting. As used in the description of the various described embodiments and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will also be understood that the term “and/or” as used herein refers to and encompasses any and all possible combinations of one or more of the associated listed items. It will be further understood that the terms “includes,” “including,” “comprises,” and/or “comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof. The term “exemplary” is used herein in the sense of “serving as an example, instance, or illustration” and not in the sense of “representing the best of its kind.”

[0034] FIG. 1 illustrates a perspective view of display device 100 in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, display device 100 is configured to be worn on a head of a user (e.g., by having the form of spectacles or eyeglasses, as shown in FIG. 1, or to be included as part of a helmet that is to be worn by the user). When display device 100 is configured to be worn on a head of a user, display device 100 is called a head-mounted display. Alternatively, display device 100 is configured for placement in proximity of an eye or eyes of the user at a fixed location, without being head-mounted (e.g., display device 100 is mounted in a vehicle, such as a car or an airplane, for placement in front of an eye or eyes of the user). As shown in FIG. 1, display device 100 includes display 110. Display 110 is configured for presenting visual contents (e.g., augmented reality contents, virtual reality contents, mixed-reality contents, or any combination thereof) to a user. In some embodiments, display 110 is a clip-on display. A clip-on display is configured to be coupled (e.g., clipped on) to a frame of a headset (e.g., a frame of goggles) for displaying visual contents. The clip-on display is further configured to be un-coupled from the frame of the headset.

[0035] In some embodiments, display device 100 includes one or more components described herein with respect to FIG. 2. In some embodiments, display device 100 includes additional components not shown in FIG. 2.

[0036] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of system 200 in accordance with some embodiments. The system 200 shown in FIG. 2 includes display device 205 (which corresponds to display device 100 shown in FIG. 1), imaging device 235, and input interface 240 that are each coupled to console 210. While FIG. 2 shows an example of system 200 including display device 205, imaging device 235, and input interface 240, in other embodiments, any number of these components may be included in system 200. For example, there may be multiple display devices 205 each having associated input interface 240 and being monitored by one or more imaging devices 235, with each display device 205, input interface 240, and imaging devices 235 communicating with console 210. In alternative configurations, different and/or additional components may be included in system 200. For example, in some embodiments, console 210 is connected via a network (e.g., the Internet) to system 200 or is self-contained as part of display device 205 (e.g., physically located inside display device 205). In some embodiments, display device 205 is used to create mixed-reality by adding in a view of the real surroundings. Thus, display device 205 and system 200 described here can deliver augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed-reality.

[0037] In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 1, display device 205 is a head-mounted display that presents media to a user. Examples of media presented by display device 205 include one or more images, video, audio, or some combination thereof. In some embodiments, audio is presented via an external device (e.g., speakers and/or headphones) that receives audio information from display device 205, console 210, or both, and presents audio data based on the audio information. In some embodiments, display device 205 immerses a user in an augmented environment.

[0038] In some embodiments, display device 205 also acts as an augmented reality (AR) headset. In these embodiments, display device 205 augments views of a physical, real-world environment with computer-generated elements (e.g., images, video, sound, etc.). Moreover, in some embodiments, display device 205 is able to cycle between different types of operation. Thus, display device 205 operate as a virtual reality (VR) device, an augmented reality (AR) device, as glasses or some combination thereof (e.g., glasses with no optical correction, glasses optically corrected for the user, sunglasses, or some combination thereof) based on instructions from application engine 255.

[0039] Display device 205 includes electronic display 215, one or more processors 216, eye tracking module 217, adjustment module 218, one or more locators 220, one or more position sensors 225, one or more position cameras 222, memory 228, inertial measurement unit (IMU) 230, one or more optical assemblies 260, or a subset or superset thereof (e.g., display device 205 with electronic display 215, optical assembly 260, without any other listed components). Some embodiments of display device 205 have different modules than those described here. Similarly, the functions can be distributed among the modules in a different manner than is described here.

[0040] One or more processors 216 (e.g., processing units or cores) execute instructions stored in memory 228. Memory 228 includes high-speed random access memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, DDR RAM or other random access solid state memory devices; and may include non-volatile memory, such as one or more magnetic disk storage devices, optical disk storage devices, flash memory devices, or other non-volatile solid state storage devices. Memory 228, or alternately the non-volatile memory device(s) within memory 228, includes a non-transitory computer readable storage medium. In some embodiments, memory 228 or the computer readable storage medium of memory 228 stores programs, modules and data structures, and/or instructions for displaying one or more images on electronic display 215.

[0041] Electronic display 215 displays images to the user in accordance with data received from console 210 and/or processor(s) 216. In various embodiments, electronic display 215 may comprise a single adjustable display element or multiple adjustable display elements (e.g., a display for each eye of a user). In some embodiments, electronic display 215 is configured to project images to the user through one or more optical assemblies 260.

[0042] In some embodiments, the display element includes one or more light emission devices and a corresponding array of spatial light modulators. A spatial light modulator is an array of electro-optic pixels, opto-electronic pixels, some other array of devices that dynamically adjust the amount of light transmitted by each device, or some combination thereof. These pixels are placed behind one or more lenses. In some embodiments, the spatial light modulator is an array of liquid crystal based pixels in an LCD (a Liquid Crystal Display). Examples of the light emission devices include: an organic light emitting diode, an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, a light emitting diode, some type of device capable of being placed in a flexible display, or some combination thereof. The light emission devices include devices that are capable of generating visible light (e.g., red, green, blue, etc.) used for image generation. The spatial light modulator is configured to selectively attenuate individual light emission devices, groups of light emission devices, or some combination thereof. Alternatively, when the light emission devices are configured to selectively attenuate individual emission devices and/or groups of light emission devices, the display element includes an array of such light emission devices without a separate emission intensity array.

[0043] One or more optical components in the one or more optical assemblies 260 direct light from the arrays of light emission devices (optionally through the emission intensity arrays) to locations within each eyebox. An eyebox is a region that is occupied by an eye of a user of display device 205 (e.g., a user wearing display device 205) who is viewing images from display device 205. In some embodiments, the eyebox is represented as a 10 mm.times.10 mm square. In some embodiments, the one or more optical components include one or more coatings, such as anti-reflective coatings.

[0044] In some embodiments, the display element includes an infrared (IR) detector array that detects IR light that is retro-reflected from the retinas of a viewing user, from the surface of the corneas, lenses of the eyes, or some combination thereof. The IR detector array includes an IR sensor or a plurality of IR sensors that each correspond to a different position of a pupil of the viewing user’s eye. In alternate embodiments, other eye tracking systems may also be employed.

[0045] Eye tracking module 217 determines locations of each pupil of a user’s eyes. In some embodiments, eye tracking module 217 instructs electronic display 215 to illuminate the eyebox with IR light (e.g., via IR emission devices in the display element).

[0046] A portion of the emitted IR light will pass through the viewing user’s pupil and be retro-reflected from the retina toward the IR detector array, which is used for determining the location of the pupil. Alternatively, the reflection off of the surfaces of the eye is used to also determine location of the pupil. The IR detector array scans for retro-reflection and identifies which IR emission devices are active when retro-reflection is detected. Eye tracking module 217 may use a tracking lookup table and the identified IR emission devices to determine the pupil locations for each eye. The tracking lookup table maps received signals on the IR detector array to locations (corresponding to pupil locations) in each eyebox. In some embodiments, the tracking lookup table is generated via a calibration procedure (e.g., user looks at various known reference points in an image and eye tracking module 217 maps the locations of the user’s pupil while looking at the reference points to corresponding signals received on the IR tracking array). As mentioned above, in some embodiments, system 200 may use other eye tracking systems than the embedded IR one described herein.

[0047] Adjustment module 218 generates an image frame based on the determined locations of the pupils. In some embodiments, this sends a discrete image to the display that will tile sub-images together thus a coherent stitched image will appear on the back of the retina. Adjustment module 218 adjusts an output (i.e. the generated image frame) of electronic display 215 based on the detected locations of the pupils. Adjustment module 218 instructs portions of electronic display 215 to pass image light to the determined locations of the pupils. In some embodiments, adjustment module 218 also instructs the electronic display to not pass image light to positions other than the determined locations of the pupils. Adjustment module 218 may, for example, block and/or stop light emission devices whose image light falls outside of the determined pupil locations, allow other light emission devices to emit image light that falls within the determined pupil locations, translate and/or rotate one or more display elements, dynamically adjust curvature and/or refractive power of one or more active lenses in the lens (e.g., microlens) arrays, or some combination thereof.

[0048] Optional locators 220 are objects located in specific positions on display device 205 relative to one another and relative to a specific reference point on display device 205. A locator 220 may be a light emitting diode (LED), a corner cube reflector, a reflective marker, a type of light source that contrasts with an environment in which display device 205 operates, or some combination thereof. In embodiments where locators 220 are active (i.e., an LED or other type of light emitting device), locators 220 may emit light in the visible band (e.g., about 400 nm to 750 nm), in the infrared band (e.g., about 750 nm to 1 mm), in the ultraviolet band (about 100 nm to 400 nm), some other portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, or some combination thereof.

[0049] In some embodiments, locators 220 are located beneath an outer surface of display device 205, which is transparent to the wavelengths of light emitted or reflected by locators 220 or is thin enough to not substantially attenuate the light emitted or reflected by locators 220. Additionally, in some embodiments, the outer surface or other portions of display device 205 are opaque in the visible band of wavelengths of light. Thus, locators 220 may emit light in the IR band under an outer surface that is transparent in the IR band but opaque in the visible band.

[0050] IMU 230 is an electronic device that generates calibration data based on measurement signals received from one or more position sensors 225. Position sensor 225 generates one or more measurement signals in response to motion of display device 205. Examples of position sensors 225 include: one or more accelerometers, one or more gyroscopes, one or more magnetometers, another suitable type of sensor that detects motion, a type of sensor used for error correction of IMU 230, or some combination thereof. Position sensors 225 may be located external to IMU 230, internal to IMU 230, or some combination thereof.

[0051] Based on the one or more measurement signals from one or more position sensors 225, IMU 230 generates first calibration data indicating an estimated position of display device 205 relative to an initial position of display device 205. For example, position sensors 225 include multiple accelerometers to measure translational motion (forward/back, up/down, left/right) and multiple gyroscopes to measure rotational motion (e.g., pitch, yaw, roll). In some embodiments, IMU 230 rapidly samples the measurement signals and calculates the estimated position of display device 205 from the sampled data. For example, IMU 230 integrates the measurement signals received from the accelerometers over time to estimate a velocity vector and integrates the velocity vector over time to determine an estimated position of a reference point on display device 205. Alternatively, IMU 230 provides the sampled measurement signals to console 210, which determines the first calibration data. The reference point is a point that may be used to describe the position of display device 205. While the reference point may generally be defined as a point in space; however, in practice the reference point is defined as a point within display device 205 (e.g., a center of IMU 230).

[0052] In some embodiments, IMU 230 receives one or more calibration parameters from console 210. As further discussed below, the one or more calibration parameters are used to maintain tracking of display device 205. Based on a received calibration parameter, IMU 230 may adjust one or more IMU parameters (e.g., sample rate). In some embodiments, certain calibration parameters cause IMU 230 to update an initial position of the reference point so it corresponds to a next calibrated position of the reference point. Updating the initial position of the reference point as the next calibrated position of the reference point helps reduce accumulated error associated with the determined estimated position. The accumulated error, also referred to as drift error, causes the estimated position of the reference point to “drift” away from the actual position of the reference point over time.

[0053] Imaging device 235 generates calibration data in accordance with calibration parameters received from console 210. Calibration data includes one or more images showing observed positions of locators 220 that are detectable by imaging device 235. In some embodiments, imaging device 235 includes one or more still cameras, one or more video cameras, any other device capable of capturing images including one or more locators 220, or some combination thereof. Additionally, imaging device 235 may include one or more filters (e.g., used to increase signal to noise ratio). Imaging device 235 is configured to optionally detect light emitted or reflected from locators 220 in a field-of-view of imaging device 235. In embodiments where locators 220 include passive elements (e.g., a retroreflector), imaging device 235 may include a light source that illuminates some or all of locators 220, which retro-reflect the light toward the light source in imaging device 235. Second calibration data is communicated from imaging device 235 to console 210, and imaging device 235 receives one or more calibration parameters from console 210 to adjust one or more imaging parameters (e.g., focal length, focus, frame rate, ISO, sensor temperature, shutter speed, aperture, etc.).

[0054] In some embodiments, display device 205 includes one or more optical assemblies 260, which can include a single optical assembly 260 or multiple optical assemblies 260 (e.g., an optical assembly 260 for each eye of a user). In some embodiments, the one or more optical assemblies 260 receive image light for the computer generated images from the electronic display 215 and direct the image light toward an eye or eyes of a user. The computer-generated images include still images, animated images, and/or a combination thereof. The computer-generated images include objects that appear to be two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional objects.

[0055] In some embodiments, electronic display 215 projects computer-generated images to one or more reflective elements (not shown), and the one or more optical assemblies 260 receive the image light from the one or more reflective elements and direct the image light to the eye(s) of the user. In some embodiments, the one or more reflective elements are partially transparent (e.g., the one or more reflective elements have a transmittance of at least 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, or 50%), which allows transmission of ambient light. In such embodiments, computer-generated images projected by electronic display 215 are superimposed with the transmitted ambient light (e.g., transmitted ambient image) to provide augmented reality images.

[0056] Input interface 240 is a device that allows a user to send action requests to console 210. An action request is a request to perform a particular action. For example, an action request may be to start or end an application or to perform a particular action within the application. Input interface 240 may include one or more input devices. Example input devices include: a keyboard, a mouse, a game controller, data from brain signals, data from other parts of the human body, or any other suitable device for receiving action requests and communicating the received action requests to console 210. An action request received by input interface 240 is communicated to console 210, which performs an action corresponding to the action request. In some embodiments, input interface 240 may provide haptic feedback to the user in accordance with instructions received from console 210. For example, haptic feedback is provided when an action request is received, or console 210 communicates instructions to input interface 240 causing input interface 240 to generate haptic feedback when console 210 performs an action.

[0057] Console 210 provides media to display device 205 for presentation to the user in accordance with information received from one or more of: imaging device 235, display device 205, and input interface 240. In the example shown in FIG. 2, console 210 includes application store 245, tracking module 250, and application engine 255. Some embodiments of console 210 have different modules than those described in conjunction with FIG. 2. Similarly, the functions further described herein may be distributed among components of console 210 in a different manner than is described here.

[0058] When application store 245 is included in console 210, application store 245 stores one or more applications for execution by console 210. An application is a group of instructions, that when executed by a processor, is used for generating content for presentation to the user. Content generated by the processor based on an application may be in response to inputs received from the user via movement of display device 205 or input interface 240. Examples of applications include: gaming applications, conferencing applications, video playback application, or other suitable applications.

[0059] When tracking module 250 is included in console 210, tracking module 250 calibrates system 200 using one or more calibration parameters and may adjust one or more calibration parameters to reduce error in determination of the position of display device 205. For example, tracking module 250 adjusts the focus of imaging device 235 to obtain a more accurate position for observed locators on display device 205. Moreover, calibration performed by tracking module 250 also accounts for information received from IMU 230. Additionally, if tracking of display device 205 is lost (e.g., imaging device 235 loses line of sight of at least a threshold number of locators 220), tracking module 250 re-calibrates some or all of system 200.

[0060] In some embodiments, tracking module 250 tracks movements of display device 205 using second calibration data from imaging device 235. For example, tracking module 250 determines positions of a reference point of display device 205 using observed locators from the second calibration data and a model of display device 205. In some embodiments, tracking module 250 also determines positions of a reference point of display device 205 using position information from the first calibration data. Additionally, in some embodiments, tracking module 250 may use portions of the first calibration data, the second calibration data, or some combination thereof, to predict a future location of display device 205. Tracking module 250 provides the estimated or predicted future position of display device 205 to application engine 255.

[0061] Application engine 255 executes applications within system 200 and receives position information, acceleration information, velocity information, predicted future positions, or some combination thereof of display device 205 from tracking module 250. Based on the received information, application engine 255 determines content to provide to display device 205 for presentation to the user. For example, if the received information indicates that the user has looked to the left, application engine 255 generates content for display device 205 that mirrors the user’s movement in an augmented environment. Additionally, application engine 255 performs an action within an application executing on console 210 in response to an action request received from input interface 240 and provides feedback to the user that the action was performed. The provided feedback may be visual or audible feedback via display device 205 or haptic feedback via input interface 240.

[0062] FIG. 3 is an isometric view of a display device 300, which corresponds to part of or all of display device 100 (see FIG. 1) in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, display device 300 includes an emission surface 310 (e.g., a light emission device array), and an optical assembly (e.g., optical assembly 260) having one or more optical components 330 (e.g., one or more of lenses, reflectors, waveguides, and/or polarization selective in-couplers described below with respect to FIGS. 4A-7D). In some embodiments, display device 300 also includes an IR detector array.

[0063] In some embodiments, light emission device array 310 emits image light and optional IR light toward the optical components 330. Light emission device array 310 may be, e.g., an array of LEDs, an array of microLEDs, an array of OLED s, or some combination thereof. Light emission device array 310 includes light emission devices 320 that emit light in the visible light (and optionally includes devices that emit light in the IR).

[0064] In some embodiments, display device 300 includes an emission intensity array configured to selectively attenuate light emitted from light emission array 310. In some embodiments, the emission intensity array is composed of a plurality of liquid crystal cells or pixels, groups of light emission devices, or some combination thereof. Each of the liquid crystal cells is, or in some embodiments, groups of liquid crystal cells are, addressable to have specific levels of attenuation. For example, at a given time, some of the liquid crystal cells may be set to no attenuation, while other liquid crystal cells may be set to maximum attenuation. In this manner, the emission intensity array is able to control what portion of the image light emitted from light emission device array 310 is passed to the one or more optical components 330. In some embodiments, display device 300 uses an emission intensity array to facilitate providing image light to a location of pupil 350 of eye 340 of a user, and minimize the amount of image light provided to other areas in the eyebox.

[0065] An optional IR detector array detects IR light that has been retro-reflected from the retina of eye 340, a cornea of eye 340, a crystalline lens of eye 340, or some combination thereof. The IR detector array includes either a single IR sensor or a plurality of IR sensitive detectors (e.g., photodiodes). In some embodiments, the IR detector array is separate from light emission device array 310. In some embodiments, the IR detector array is integrated into light emission device array 310.

[0066] In some embodiments, light emission device array 310 and an emission intensity array make up a display element. Alternatively, the display element includes light emission device array 310 (e.g., when light emission device array 310 includes individually adjustable pixels) without the emission intensity array. In some embodiments, the display element additionally includes the IR array. In some embodiments, in response to a determined location of pupil 350, the display element adjusts the emitted image light such that the light output by the display element is refracted by one or more optical components 330 toward the determined location of pupil 350, and not toward another presumed location.

[0067] In some embodiments, display device 300 includes one or more broadband sources (e.g., one or more white LEDs) coupled with a plurality of color filters, in addition to, or instead of, light emission device array 310.

[0068] One or more optical components 330 receive the image light (or modified image light, e.g., attenuated light) from emission surface 310, and direct the image light to a detected or presumed location of the pupil 350 of an eye 340 of a user. In some embodiments, the one or more optical components include one or more optical assemblies 260.

[0069] FIG. 4A is a schematic diagram illustrating a display device 400-A in accordance with some embodiments. The display device 400-A includes an electronic display (display) 410 configured to emit image light (e.g., first light 412) having first polarization and an optical assembly 420 configured to project the image light from the display 410 toward an eye 430 of a user, according to some embodiments.

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