Apple Patent | Point Cloud Compression Image Padding

Patent: Point Cloud Compression Image Padding

Publication Number: 20200104976

Publication Date: 20200402

Applicants: Apple

Abstract

A system comprises an encoder configured to compress attribute information and/or spatial for a point cloud and/or a decoder configured to decompress compressed attribute and/or spatial information for the point cloud. The encoder is configured to convert a point cloud into an image based representation. The encoder packs patch images into an image frame and fills empty spaces in the image frame with a padding, wherein pixel values for the padding are determined based on neighboring pixels values such that the padding is smoothed in the image frame. Also, the decoder is configured to generate a decompressed point cloud based on an image based representation of a point cloud.

PRIORITY CLAIM

[0001] This application claims benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 62/739,112, entitled “Point Cloud Compression Image Padding”, filed Sep. 28, 2018, and which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

Technical Field

[0002] This disclosure relates generally to compression and decompression of point clouds comprising a plurality of points, each having associated spatial information and attribute information.

Description of the Related Art

[0003] Various types of sensors, such as light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems, 3-D-cameras, 3-D scanners, etc. may capture data indicating positions of points in three dimensional space, for example positions in the X, Y, and Z planes. Also, such systems may further capture attribute information in addition to spatial information for the respective points, such as color information (e.g. RGB values), texture information, intensity attributes, reflectivity attributes, motion related attributes, modality attributes, or various other attributes. In some circumstances, additional attributes may be assigned to the respective points, such as a time-stamp when the point was captured. Points captured by such sensors may make up a “point cloud” comprising a set of points each having associated spatial information and one or more associated attributes. In some circumstances, a point cloud may include thousands of points, hundreds of thousands of points, millions of points, or even more points. Also, in some circumstances, point clouds may be generated, for example in software, as opposed to being captured by one or more sensors. In either case, such point clouds may include large amounts of data and may be costly and time-consuming to store and transmit.

SUMMARY OF EMBODIMENTS

[0004] In some embodiments, a system includes one or more sensors configured to capture points that collectively make up a point cloud, wherein each of the points comprises spatial information identifying a spatial location of the respective point and attribute information defining one or more attributes associated with the respective point.

[0005] The system also includes an encoder configured to compress the attribute and/or spatial information of the points. To compress the attribute and/or spatial information, the encoder is configured to determine, for the point cloud, a plurality of patches, each corresponding to portions of the point cloud. The encoder is further configured to, for each patch, generate a patch image comprising the set of points corresponding to the patch projected onto a patch plane and generate another patch image comprising geometry information, such as depth information, for the set of points corresponding to the patch, wherein the geometry information comprises depths of the points in a direction perpendicular to the patch plane.

[0006] For example, the geometry patch image corresponding to the patch projected onto a patch plane may depict the points of the point cloud included in the patch in two directions, such as an X and Y direction. The points of the point cloud may be projected onto a patch plane approximately perpendicular to a normal vector, normal to a surface of the point cloud at the location of the patch. Also, for example, the geometry patch image comprising depth information for the set of points included in the patch may depict depth information, such as depth distances in a Z direction. To depict the depth information, the geometry patch image may include a parameter that varies in intensity based on the depth of points in the point cloud at a particular location in the patch image. For example, the geometry patch image depicting depth information may have a same shape as the attribute patch image representing attributes of points projected onto the patch plane. However, the geometry information patch image may be an image comprising image attributes, such as one or more colors, that vary in intensity based on depth, wherein the intensity of the one or more image attributes corresponds to a depth of a corresponding point of the point cloud at a location in the geometry patch image where the image attribute is displayed in the geometry patch image depicting depth. For example, points that are closer to the patch plane may be encoded as darker values in the patch image depicting depth and points that are further away from the patch plane may be encoded as lighter values in the patch image depicting depth, for example in a monochromatic patch image depicting depth. Thus, the depth information patch image when aligned with other patch images representing attribute values for points projected onto the patch plane may indicate the relative depths of the points projected onto the patch plane, based on respective image attribute intensities at locations in the geometry patch image that correspond to locations of the points in the other patch images comprising point cloud points projected onto the patch plane.

[0007] The encoder is further configured to pack generated patch images (including a geometry patch image and one or more additional patch images for one or more other attributes such as colors, textures, reflectances, etc.) for each of the determined patches into one or more image frames. Also, the encoder is configured to provide the one or more packed image frames to a video encoding component (which may be included in the encoder or may be a separate video encoding component). Additionally, the encoder is configured to down-scale the packed image frames in 2D space. For example, the encoder may utilize one or more down-scaling features of a video encoding component to down-scale the image frames in a 2D domain. For example, the encoder may utilize a video encoding component in accordance with the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC/H.265) standard or other suitable standards such as, the Advanced Video Coding (AVC/H.264) standard, the AOMedia Video 1 (AV1) video coding format produced by the Alliance for Open Media (AOM), etc. In some embodiments, the encoder may utilize an image encoder in accordance with a Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG), a Joint Photography Experts Group (JPEG) standard, an International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication standard (e.g. ITU-T standard), etc.

[0008] In some embodiments, a decoder is configured to receive one or more encoded image frames comprising patch images for a plurality of patches of a compressed point cloud, wherein, for each patch, the one or more encoded image frames comprise: a patch image comprising a set of points of the patch projected onto a patch plane and a patch image comprising depth information for the set of points of the patch, wherein the depth information indicates depths of the points of the patch in a direction perpendicular to the patch plane. In some embodiments, a depth patch image may be packed into an image frame with other attribute patch images. For example, a decoder may receive one or more image frames comprising packed patch images as generated by the encoder described above. At least one of the image frames may have been down-scaled at an encoder, and the decoder may up-scale the down-scaled image frame, in a 2D video domain.

[0009] The decoder is further configured to video decode the one or more video encoded image frames comprising the patch images. In some embodiments, the decoder may utilize a video decoder in accordance with the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard or other suitable standards such as, the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) standard, the AOMedia Video 1 (AV1) video coding format, etc. In some embodiments, the decoder may utilize an image decoder in accordance with a Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) or a Joint Photography Experts Group (JPEG) standard, etc.

[0010] The decoder is further configured to receive or determine relationship information indicating relationships between the respective attribute patch images, depth patch images, and/or image frames. For example, the decoder may receive relationship information in a compressed point cloud file, wherein the relationship information was determined by an encoder. Also, in some embodiments, the decoder may determine relationship information based on information included in a compressed point cloud file, such as an occupancy map and/or auxiliary information for the compressed point cloud. In some embodiments, the decoder may utilize the received or determined relationship information to adjust one or more parameters used to video decode the video encoded image frames.

[0011] The decoder is further configured to determine, for each patch, spatial information for the set of points of the patch based, at least in part, on the attribute patch image comprising the set of points of the patch projected onto the patch plane and the geometry patch image comprising the depth information for the set of points of the patch, and generate a reconstructed version of the compressed point cloud based, at least in part, on the determined spatial information for the plurality of patches and the attribute information included in the patches.

[0012] In some embodiments, a method includes receiving one or more encoded image frames comprising patch images for a plurality of patches of a compressed point cloud, wherein, for each patch, the one or more encoded image frames comprise: an attribute patch image comprising a set of points of the patch projected onto a patch plane and a geometry patch image comprising depth information for the set of points of the patch, wherein the depth information indicates depths of the points of the patch in a direction perpendicular to the patch plane. The method further includes receiving an occupancy map for the one or more image frames. The method further includes decoding the one or more encoded image frames comprising the patch images. Additionally, the method included up-scaling one or more of the image frames that were previously down-scaled. The up-scaling is performed in the 2D domain prior to reconstructing a 3D representation of the compressed point cloud. In some embodiments, decoding may be performed in accordance with the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard or other suitable standards such as, the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) standard, an AOMedia Video 1 (AV1) video coding format, etc. In some embodiments, decoding may be performed in accordance with a Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) or a Joint Photography Experts Group (JPEG) standard, etc.

[0013] The method further includes determining, for each patch, spatial information for the set of points of the patch based, at least in part, on the patch image comprising the set of points of the patch projected onto the patch plane and the patch image comprising the depth information for the set of points of the patch, and generating a reconstructed representation of the compressed point cloud based, at least in part, on the determined spatial information for the plurality of patches.

[0014] In some embodiments, a non-transitory computer-readable medium stores program instructions that, when executed by one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to implement an encoder as described herein to compress geometry and attribute information of a point cloud.

[0015] In some embodiments, a non-transitory computer-readable medium stores program instructions that, when executed by one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to implement a decoder as described herein to decompress geometry and attribute information of a point cloud.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0016] FIG. 1 illustrates a system comprising a sensor that captures information for points of a point cloud and an encoder that compresses spatial information and attribute information of the point cloud, where the compressed spatial and attribute information is sent to a decoder, according to some embodiments.

[0017] FIG. 2A illustrates components of an encoder for encoding intra point cloud frames, according to some embodiments.

[0018] FIG. 2B illustrates components of a decoder for decoding intra point cloud frames, according to some embodiments.

[0019] FIG. 2C illustrates components of an encoder for encoding inter point cloud frames, according to some embodiments.

[0020] FIG. 2D illustrates components of a decoder for decoding inter point cloud frames, according to some embodiments.

[0021] FIG. 3A illustrates an example patch segmentation process, according to some embodiments.

[0022] FIG. 3B illustrates an example image frame comprising packed patch images and padded portions, according to some embodiments.

[0023] FIG. 3C illustrates an example image frame comprising patch portions and padded portions, according to some embodiments.

[0024] FIG. 3D illustrates a point cloud being projected onto multiple projections, according to some embodiments.

[0025] FIG. 3E illustrates a point cloud being projected onto multiple parallel projections, according to some embodiments.

[0026] FIG. 3F illustrates an example occupancy map, according to some embodiments.

[0027] FIG. 3G illustrates an example image frame comprising patches and padding, according to some embodiments.

[0028] FIG. 3H illustrates an example image frame comprising patches and smoothed padding, according to some embodiments.

[0029] FIG. 3I illustrates example neighborhood arrangements that may be used to determine a value of a pixel in a pad smoothing operation, according to some embodiments.

[0030] FIG. 4A illustrates components of an encoder for encoding intra point cloud frames with color conversion, according to some embodiments.

[0031] FIG. 4B illustrates components of an encoder for encoding inter point cloud frames with color conversion, according to some embodiments.

[0032] FIG. 4C illustrates components of a closed-loop color conversion module, according to some embodiments.

[0033] FIG. 4D illustrates an example process for determining a quality metric for a point cloud upon which an operation has been performed, according to some embodiments.

[0034] FIG. 5A illustrates components of an encoder that includes geometry, texture, and/or other attribute downscaling, according to some embodiments.

[0035] FIG. 5B illustrates components of a decoder that includes geometry, texture, and/or other attribute upscaling, according to some embodiments.

[0036] FIG. 5C illustrates rescaling from the perspective of an encoder, according to some embodiments.

[0037] FIG. 5D illustrates rescaling from the perspective of a decoder, according to some embodiments.

[0038] FIG. 5E illustrates an example open loop rescaling, according to some embodiments.

[0039] FIG. 5F illustrates an example closed loop rescaling, according to some embodiments.

[0040] FIG. 5G illustrates an example closed loop rescaling with multiple attribute layers, according to some embodiments.

[0041] FIG. 5H illustrates an example of video level spatiotemporal scaling, according to some embodiments.

[0042] FIG. 5I illustrates an example closed loop rescaling with spatiotemporal scaling, according to some embodiments.

[0043] FIG. 5J illustrates a process of encoding/compressing image frames of a point cloud using down-scaling, according to some embodiments.

[0044] FIG. 5K illustrates a process of determining to down-scaling image frames using open-loop or closed-loop down-scaling, according to some embodiments.

[0045] FIG. 5L illustrates a process of decoding/decompressing image frames of a point cloud using up-scaling, according to some embodiments.

[0046] FIG. 6A illustrates components of an encoder that further includes pre-video compression texture processing and/or filtering and pre video compression geometry processing/filtering, according to some embodiments.

[0047] FIG. 6B illustrates components of a decoder that further includes post video decompression texture processing and/or filtering and post video decompression geometry processing/filtering, according to some embodiments.

[0048] FIG. 6C illustrates, a bit stream structure for a compressed point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0049] FIG. 6D illustrates a process for generating video encoded image frames for patches of a point cloud taking into account relationship information between the patches packed into the image frames, according to some embodiments.

[0050] FIG. 6E illustrates a process for generating video encoded image frames taking into account pooled distortion for a set of patches corresponding to a same set of points, according to some embodiments.

[0051] FIG. 6F illustrates a process for generating video encoded image frames taking into account patch edges, according to some embodiments.

[0052] FIG. 6G illustrates a process for reconstructing a point cloud based on video encoded image frames comprising patches of the point cloud, wherein relationship information between the patches packed into the image frames is taken into account, according to some embodiments.

[0053] FIG. 6H illustrates a process of upscaling a patch image included in an image frame taking into account edges of the patch image determined based on received or determined relationship information for the patches, according to some embodiments.

[0054] FIG. 6I illustrates an example application where an attribute plane is up-scaled using its corresponding geometry information and the geometry extracted edges, according to some embodiments.

[0055] FIG. 7A illustrates an example of a point cloud compression network abstraction layer (PCCNAL) unit based bit stream, according to some embodiments.

[0056] FIG. 7B illustrates an example of a PCCNAL units grouped by picture order count (POC), according to some embodiments.

[0057] FIG. 7C illustrates an example of a PCCNAL unit grouped by type, according to some embodiments.

[0058] FIG. 8A illustrates a process for compressing attribute and spatial information of a point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0059] FIG. 8B illustrates a process for decompressing attribute and spatial information of a point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0060] FIG. 8C illustrates patch images being generated and packed into an image frame to compress attribute and spatial information of a point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0061] FIG. 9 illustrates patch images being generated and packed into an image frame to compress attribute and spatial information of a moving or changing point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0062] FIG. 10 illustrates a decoder receiving image frames comprising patch images, patch information, and an occupancy map, and generating a decompressed representation of a point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0063] FIG. 11A illustrates an encoder, adjusting encoding based on one or more masks for a point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0064] FIG. 11B illustrates a decoder, adjusting decoding based on one or more masks for a point cloud, according to some embodiments.

[0065] FIG. 12A illustrates more detail regarding compression of an occupancy map, according to some embodiments.

[0066] FIG. 12B illustrates example blocks and traversal patterns for compressing an occupancy map, according to some embodiments.

[0067] FIG. 12C illustrates more detail regarding compression of an occupancy map, according to some embodiments.

[0068] FIG. 13 illustrates compressed point cloud information being used in a 3-D telepresence application, according to some embodiments.

[0069] FIG. 14 illustrates compressed point cloud information being used in a virtual reality application, according to some embodiments.

[0070] FIG. 15 illustrates an example computer system that may implement an encoder or decoder, according to some embodiments.

[0071] This specification includes references to “one embodiment” or “an embodiment.” The appearances of the phrases “in one embodiment” or “in an embodiment” do not necessarily refer to the same embodiment. Particular features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner consistent with this disclosure.

[0072] “Comprising.” This term is open-ended. As used in the appended claims, this term does not foreclose additional structure or steps. Consider a claim that recites: “An apparatus comprising one or more processor units … .” Such a claim does not foreclose the apparatus from including additional components (e.g., a network interface unit, graphics circuitry, etc.).

[0073] “Configured To.” Various units, circuits, or other components may be described or claimed as “configured to” perform a task or tasks. In such contexts, “configured to” is used to connote structure by indicating that the units/circuits/components include structure (e.g., circuitry) that performs those task or tasks during operation. As such, the unit/circuit/component can be said to be configured to perform the task even when the specified unit/circuit/component is not currently operational (e.g., is not on). The units/circuits/components used with the “configured to” language include hardware–for example, circuits, memory storing program instructions executable to implement the operation, etc. Reciting that a unit/circuit/component is “configured to” perform one or more tasks is expressly intended not to invoke 35 U.S.C. .sctn. 112(f), for that unit/circuit/component. Additionally, “configured to” can include generic structure (e.g., generic circuitry) that is manipulated by software and/or firmware (e.g., an FPGA or a general-purpose processor executing software) to operate in manner that is capable of performing the task(s) at issue. “Configure to” may also include adapting a manufacturing process (e.g., a semiconductor fabrication facility) to fabricate devices (e.g., integrated circuits) that are adapted to implement or perform one or more tasks.

[0074] “First,” “Second,” etc. As used herein, these terms are used as labels for nouns that they precede, and do not imply any type of ordering (e.g., spatial, temporal, logical, etc.). For example, a buffer circuit may be described herein as performing write operations for “first” and “second” values. The terms “first” and “second” do not necessarily imply that the first value must be written before the second value.

[0075] “Based On.” As used herein, this term is used to describe one or more factors that affect a determination. This term does not foreclose additional factors that may affect a determination. That is, a determination may be solely based on those factors or based, at least in part, on those factors. Consider the phrase “determine A based on B.” While in this case, B is a factor that affects the determination of A, such a phrase does not foreclose the determination of A from also being based on C. In other instances, A may be determined based solely on B.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0076] As data acquisition and display technologies have become more advanced, the ability to capture point clouds comprising thousands or millions of points in 2-D or 3-D space, such as via LIDAR systems, has increased. Also, the development of advanced display technologies, such as virtual reality or augmented reality systems, has increased potential uses for point clouds. However, point cloud files are often very large and may be costly and time-consuming to store and transmit. For example, communication of point clouds over private or public networks, such as the Internet, may require considerable amounts of time and/or network resources, such that some uses of point cloud data, such as real-time uses, may be limited. Also, storage requirements of point cloud files may consume a significant amount of storage capacity of devices storing the point cloud files, which may also limit potential applications for using point cloud data.

[0077] In some embodiments, an encoder may be used to generate a compressed point cloud to reduce costs and time associated with storing and transmitting large point cloud files. In some embodiments, a system may include an encoder that compresses attribute and/or spatial information of a point cloud file such that the point cloud file may be stored and transmitted more quickly than non-compressed point clouds and in a manner that the point cloud file may occupy less storage space than non-compressed point clouds. In some embodiments, compression of attributes of points in a point cloud may enable a point cloud to be communicated over a network in real-time or in near real-time. For example, a system may include a sensor that captures attribute information about points in an environment where the sensor is located, wherein the captured points and corresponding attributes make up a point cloud. The system may also include an encoder that compresses the captured point cloud attribute information. The compressed attribute information of the point cloud may be sent over a network in real-time or near real-time to a decoder that decompresses the compressed attribute information of the point cloud. The decompressed point cloud may be further processed, for example to make a control decision based on the surrounding environment at the location of the sensor. The control decision may then be communicated back to a device at or near the location of the sensor, wherein the device receiving the control decision implements the control decision in real-time or near real-time. In some embodiments, the decoder may be associated with an augmented reality system and the decompressed attribute information may be displayed or otherwise used by the augmented reality system. In some embodiments, compressed attribute information for a point cloud may be sent with compressed spatial information for points of the point cloud. In other embodiments, spatial information and attribute information may be separately encoded and/or separately transmitted to a decoder.

[0078] In some embodiments, a system may include a decoder that receives one or more sets of point cloud data comprising compressed attribute information via a network from a remote server or other storage device that stores the one or more point cloud files. For example, a 3-D display, a holographic display, or a head-mounted display may be manipulated in real-time or near real-time to show different portions of a virtual world represented by point clouds. In order to update the 3-D display, the holographic display, or the head-mounted display, a system associated with the decoder may request point cloud data from the remote server based on user manipulations of the displays, and the point cloud data may be transmitted from the remote server to the decoder and decoded by the decoder in real-time or near real-time. The displays may then be updated with updated point cloud data responsive to the user manipulations, such as updated point attributes.

[0079] In some embodiments, a system, may include one or more LIDAR systems, 3-D cameras, 3-D scanners, etc., and such sensor devices may capture spatial information, such as X, Y, and Z coordinates for points in a view of the sensor devices. In some embodiments, the spatial information may be relative to a local coordinate system or may be relative to a global coordinate system (for example, a Cartesian coordinate system may have a fixed reference point, such as a fixed point on the earth, or may have a non-fixed local reference point, such as a sensor location).

[0080] In some embodiments, such sensors may also capture attribute information for one or more points, such as color attributes, texture attributes, reflectivity attributes, velocity attributes, acceleration attributes, time attributes, modalities, and/or various other attributes. In some embodiments, other sensors, in addition to LIDAR systems, 3-D cameras, 3-D scanners, etc., may capture attribute information to be included in a point cloud. For example, in some embodiments, a gyroscope or accelerometer, may capture motion information to be included in a point cloud as an attribute associated with one or more points of the point cloud. For example, a vehicle equipped with a LIDAR system, a 3-D camera, or a 3-D scanner may include the vehicle’s direction and speed in a point cloud captured by the LIDAR system, the 3-D camera, or the 3-D scanner. For example, when points in a view of the vehicle are captured they may be included in a point cloud, wherein the point cloud includes the captured points and associated motion information corresponding to a state of the vehicle when the points were captured.

Example System Arrangement

[0081] FIG. 1 illustrates a system comprising a sensor that captures information for points of a point cloud and an encoder that compresses attribute information of the point cloud, where the compressed attribute information is sent to a decoder, according to some embodiments.

[0082] System 100 includes sensor 102 and encoder 104. Sensor 102 captures a point cloud 110 comprising points representing structure 106 in view 108 of sensor 102. For example, in some embodiments, structure 106 may be a mountain range, a building, a sign, an environment surrounding a street, or any other type of structure. In some embodiments, a captured point cloud, such as captured point cloud 110, may include spatial and attribute information for the points included in the point cloud. For example, point A of captured point cloud 110 comprises X, Y, Z coordinates and attributes 1, 2, and 3. In some embodiments, attributes of a point may include attributes such as R, G, B color values, a velocity at the point, an acceleration at the point, a reflectance of the structure at the point, a time stamp indicating when the point was captured, a string-value indicating a modality when the point was captured, for example “walking”, or other attributes. The captured point cloud 110 may be provided to encoder 104, wherein encoder 104 generates a compressed version of the point cloud (compressed attribute information 112) that is transmitted via network 114 to decoder 116. In some embodiments, a compressed version of the point cloud, such as compressed attribute information 112, may be included in a common compressed point cloud that also includes compressed spatial information for the points of the point cloud or, in some embodiments, compressed spatial information and compressed attribute information may be communicated as separate sets of data.

[0083] In some embodiments, encoder 104 may be integrated with sensor 102. For example, encoder 104 may be implemented in hardware or software included in a sensor device, such as sensor 102. In other embodiments, encoder 104 may be implemented on a separate computing device that is proximate to sensor 102.

Example Intra-Frame Encoder

[0084] FIG. 2A illustrates components of an encoder for encoding intra point cloud frames, according to some embodiments. In some embodiments, the encoder described above in regard to FIG. 1 may operate in a similar manner as encoder 200 described in FIG. 2A and encoder 250 described in FIG. 2C.

[0085] The encoder 200 receives uncompressed point cloud 202 and generates compressed point cloud information 204. In some embodiments, an encoder, such as encoder 200, may receive the uncompressed point cloud 202 from a sensor, such as sensor 102 illustrated in FIG. 1, or, in some embodiments, may receive the uncompressed point cloud 202 from another source, such as a graphics generation component that generates the uncompressed point cloud in software, as an example.

[0086] In some embodiments, an encoder, such as encoder 200, includes decomposition into patches module 206, packing module 208, spatial image generation module 210, texture image generation module 212, and attribute information generation module 214. In some embodiments, an encoder, such as encoder 200, also includes image frame padding module 216, video compression module 218 and multiplexer 224. In addition, in some embodiments an encoder, such as encoder 200, may include an occupancy map compression module, such as occupancy map compression module 220, and an auxiliary patch information compression module, such as auxiliary patch information compression module 222. In some embodiments, an encoder, such as encoder 200, converts a 3D point cloud into an image-based representation along with some meta data (e.g., occupancy map and patch info) necessary to convert the compressed point cloud back into a decompressed point cloud.

[0087] In some embodiments, the conversion process decomposes the point cloud into a set of patches (e.g., a patch is defined as a contiguous subset of the surface described by the point cloud), which may be overlapping or not, such that each patch may be described by a depth field with respect to a plane in 2D space. More details about the patch decomposition process are provided above with regard to FIGS. 3A-3C.

[0088] After or in conjunction with the patches being determined for the point cloud being compressed, a 2D sampling process is performed in planes associated with the patches. The 2D sampling process may be applied in order to approximate each patch with a uniformly sampled point cloud, which may be stored as a set of 2D patch images describing the geometry/texture/attributes of the point cloud at the patch location. The “Packing” module 208 may store the 2D patch images associated with the patches in a single (or multiple) 2D images, referred to herein as “image frames” or “video image frames.” In some embodiments, a packing module, such as packing module 208, may pack the 2D patch images such that the packed 2D patch images do not overlap (even though an outer bounding box for one patch image may overlap an outer bounding box for another patch image). Also, the packing module may pack the 2D patch images in a way that minimizes non-used images pixels of the image frame.

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