Sony Patent | Image Generation Apparatus And Image Generation Method

Patent: Image Generation Apparatus And Image Generation Method

Publication Number: 10684475

Publication Date: 20200616

Applicants: Sony

Abstract

Methods and apparatus provide for acquiring information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation of a user’s head wearing a head-mounted display; generating an image for the head-mounted display using information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation acquired at a certain point of time; and a correcting process includes receiving updated information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation at a different point of time and correcting the image generated using the updated information. The generating the image includes using the information relating to at least one of the position and the rotation in a first frequency; and the correcting includes receiving updated information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation in a second frequency corresponding to a frame rate of the head-mounted display. The correcting includes multiple times of correction of the image generated in the first frequency using a plurality of the updated information in the second frequency, which is higher than the first frequency.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to an apparatus for and a method of generating and correcting an image.

BACKGROUND ART

A user of a head-mounted display unit connected to a game machine would wear the head-mounted display unit on the head and operate a controller or the like to play a game while watching a screen image displayed on the head-mounted display unit. In an ordinary display unit of the installation type connected to a game machine, the visual field range of the user spreads also to the outside of the screen image of the display unit. Therefore, the user cannot sometimes concentrate its attention to the screen image of the display unit or sometimes lacks in sense of immersion in the game. In this regard, if the head-mounted display unit is worn, then the user does not look at any other than the image displayed on the head-mounted display unit. Therefore, there is an effect that the sense of immersion in the video world is enhanced and the entertainment property of the game is enhanced further.

Further, if the head-mounted display unit is configured such that, when a panorama image is displayed on the head-mounted display unit and the user who wears the head-mounted display unit turns its head, a panorama image or a virtual space over 360 degrees is displayed on the head-mounted display unit, then the sense of immersion in the video is further enhanced and also the operability of an application such as a game is improved.

SUMMARY

Technical Problem

If a head-mounted display unit has a head tracking function in this manner and the viewpoint or the viewing direction is changed in an interlocked relationship with the movement of the head of the user to generate a panorama image, then some latency exists from generation to display of the panorama image. Therefore, some displacement occurs between an assumed direction of the head of the user upon generation of the panorama image and the direction of the head of the user at a point of time at which the panorama image is displayed on the head-mounted display unit. Therefore, the user sometimes falls into drunken sensation.

The present invention has been made in view of such a subject as described above, and it is an object of the present invention to provide an image generation apparatus and an image generation method which can display a corrected image whose latency after generation to display of an image is reduced.

Solution to Problem

In order to solve the subject described above, an image generation apparatus according to an aspect of the present invention includes an acquisition unit configured to acquire information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction, an image generation unit configured to generate an image using information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction acquired at a certain point of time by the acquisition unit, and a correction processing unit configured to receive information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction updated at a different point of time from the acquisition unit and correct the image generated by the image generation unit using the updated information relating to at least one of the viewpoint position and the viewing direction.

Also another aspect of the present invention is an image generation apparatus. This apparatus is an image generation apparatus incorporated in a client connected to a server through a network and includes an acquisition unit configured to acquire visual field information including information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction, and a correction processing unit configured to receive, from the server, an image generated using information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction acquired at a certain point of time by the acquisition unit, receive information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction updated at a different point of time from the acquisition unit and correct the received image using the updated information relating to at least one of the viewpoint position and the viewing direction.

Also a further aspect of the present invention is an image generation apparatus. This apparatus includes an acquisition unit configured to acquire information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation of the head of a user who wears a head-mounted display unit, an image generation unit configured to generate an image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit using information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation acquired at a certain point of time by the acquisition unit, and a correction processing unit configured to receive updated information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation at a different point of time from the acquisition unit and correct the image generated by the image generation unit using the updated information relating to at least one of the position and the rotation.

A still further aspect of the present invention is an image generation method. This method includes an acquisition step of acquiring information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction, an image generation step of generating an image using information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction acquired at a certain point of time by the acquisition step, and a correction processing step of receiving information relating to at least one of a viewpoint position and a viewing direction updated at a different point of time and correcting the image generated by the image generation step using the updated information relating to at least one of the viewpoint position and the viewing direction.

Also a yet further aspect of the present invention is an image generation method. This method includes an acquisition step of acquiring information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation of the head of a user who wears a head-mounted display unit, an image generation step of generating an image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit using information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation acquired at a certain point of time by the acquisition step, and a correction processing step of receiving updated information relating to at least one of a position and a rotation at a different point of time and correcting the image generated by the image generation step using the updated information relating to the position and the rotation.

It is to be noted that also an arbitrary combination of the components described above and results of conversion of the representation of the present invention between a method, an apparatus, a system, a computer program, a data structure, a recording medium and so forth are effective as modes of the present invention.

Advantageous Effect of Invention

With the present invention, a corrected image whose latency after generation till display of an image is reduced.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an appearance view of a head-mounted display unit.

FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram of the head-mounted display unit.

FIG. 3 is a view depicting a configuration of a panorama image generation system according to an embodiment.

FIG. 4 is a functional block diagram of a panorama image generation apparatus according to the embodiment.

FIG. 5 is a view illustrating a panorama image displayed on the head-mounted display unit.

FIG. 6 is a view illustrating a reason why a correction process is required for a panorama image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit.

FIG. 7 is a sequence diagram illustrating a conventional image generation process which does not perform a correction process.

FIG. 8 is a sequence diagram illustrating an image generation process which involves a correction process of the embodiment.

FIG. 9A is a view illustrating a relationship between a tracking coordinate system and an HMD coordinate system.

FIG. 9B is a view illustrating a relationship between the HMD coordinate system and a visual field coordinate system.

FIG. 10 is a view illustrating a visual field of a user who wears a head-mounted display unit thereon.

FIG. 11 is a flow chart illustrating a panorama image generation process by the panorama image generation apparatus of FIG. 4.

FIG. 12 is a view illustrating an image correction process of the embodiment.

FIG. 13 is a view illustrating an image correction process of a modification to the embodiment.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

First Embodiment

FIG. 1 is an appearance view of a head-mounted display unit 100. The head-mounted display unit 100 includes a main body unit 110, a front head portion contact unit 120, and side head portion contact portions 130.

The head-mounted display unit 100 is a display apparatus which is mounted on the head of a user such that the user appreciates a still picture or a moving picture displayed on a display unit and listens to sound, music or the like outputted from a headphone.

Position information of a user can be measured by a position sensor such as a GPS (Global Positioning System) built in or externally mounted on the head-mounted display unit 100. Further, posture information such as a rotational angle or an inclination of the head of the user, who wears the head-mounted display unit 100, can be measured by a posture sensor built in or externally mounted on the head-mounted display unit 100.

The main body unit 110 includes the display unit, a position information acquisition sensor, the posture sensor, a communication apparatus and so forth. The front head portion contact unit 120 and the side head portion contact portions 130 may have, as optional parts, biological information acquisition sensors which can measure biological information such as the body temperature, pulse rate, blood components, sweating, brain waves and cerebral blood flow of the user.

The head-mounted display unit 100 may further include a camera for picking up an image of the eyes of the user. By the camera incorporated in the head-mounted display unit 100, the line of sight, the movement of the pupils, a blink of the eyes and so forth of the user can be detected.

Here, a generation method of an image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100 is described. The image generation method of the present embodiment can be applied not only to the head-mounted display unit 100 in a narrow sense but also to a case in which glasses, an eyeglass-type display unit, an eyeglass type camera, a headphone, a headset (headphone with a microphone), an earphone, an earring, an ear camera, a cap, a cap with a microphone, a hairband or the like is mounted.

FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram of the head-mounted display unit 100.

A control unit 10 is a processor which processes and outputs a signal such as an image signal or a sensor signal, instructions or data. An input interface 20 accepts an operation signal or a setting signal from a touch panel and a touch panel controller and supplies the accepted signal to the control unit 10. An output interface 30 receives an image signal from the control unit 10 and causes the display unit to display the image signal. A backlight 32 supplies backlight to a liquid crystal display unit.

A communication controlling unit 40 transmits data inputted thereto from the control unit 10 to the outside by wire or wireless communication through a network adapter 42 or an antenna 44. Further, the communication controlling unit 40 receives data from the outside by wire or wireless communication through the network adapter 42 or the antenna 44 and outputs the data to the control unit 10.

A storage unit 50 temporarily stores data or a parameter, an operation signal and so forth processed by the control unit 10.

A GPS unit 60 receives position information from GPS satellites and supplies the position information to the control unit 10 in accordance with an operation signal from the control unit 10. A wireless unit 62 receives position information from a wireless base station and supplies the position information to the control unit 10 in accordance with an operation signal from the control unit 10.

A posture sensor 64 detects posture information such as a rotational angle or an inclination of the main body unit 110 of the head-mounted display unit 100. The posture sensor 64 is implemented by a suitable combination of a gyro sensor, an acceleration sensor, an angular acceleration sensor and so forth.

An external input/output terminal interface 70 is an interface for connecting a peripheral apparatus such as a USB (Universal Serial bus) controller. An external memory 72 is an external memory such as a flash memory.

A clock unit 80 sets time information in response to a setting signal from the control unit 10 and supplies time data to the control unit 10.

The control unit 10 can supply an image or text data to the output interface 30 so that it is displayed on the display unit or can supply an image or text data to the communication controlling unit 40 so as to be transmitted to the outside.

FIG. 3 is a view depicting a configuration of a panorama image generation system according to an embodiment. The head-mounted display unit 100 is connected to a game machine 200 by an interface for connecting a peripheral apparatus by wireless communication or a USB. The game machine 200 may be connected further to a server through a network. In this case, the server may provide an online application of a game or the like, in which a plurality of users can participate through the network, to the game machine 200. The head-mounted display unit 100 may be connected to a computer or a portable terminal in place of the game machine 200.

FIG. 4 is a functional block diagram of a panorama image generation apparatus 700 according to the embodiment. FIG. 4 draws a block diagram in which attention is paid to functions. The functional blocks can be implemented in various forms only from hardware, only from software or from a combination of them.

The panorama image generation apparatus 700 is incorporated in the game machine 200 to which the head-mounted display unit 100 is connected. However, at least part of functions of the panorama image generation apparatus 700 may be incorporated in the control unit 10 of the head-mounted display unit 100. Particularly, functions of a correction processing unit 780 hereinafter described may be incorporated in the head-mounted display unit 100 side. Alternatively, at least part of functions of the panorama image generation apparatus 700 may be incorporated in the server connected to the game machine 200 through the network.

A zooming instruction acquisition unit 710 acquires a magnification for zooming instructed by a user through the input interface 20 of the head-mounted display unit 100. The zoom magnification acquired by the zooming instruction acquisition unit 710 is supplied to a sensitivity adjustment unit 720 and a panorama image processing unit 750.

A position and rotation information acquisition unit 730 acquires information relating to the position and the rotation of the head of the user who wears the head-mounted display unit 100 on the basis of position information detected by the GPS unit 60 or a motion sensor of the head-mounted display unit 100 and posture information detected by the posture sensor 64. The position of the head of the user may be acquired by detection of a movement of the head-mounted display unit 100 by the camera of the game machine 200.

The position and rotation information acquisition unit 730 acquires the position and the rotation of the head of the user on the basis of a sensitivity instructed by the sensitivity adjustment unit 720. For example, if the user turns the neck, then a variation of the angle of the head of the user is detected by the posture sensor 64. Thus, the sensitivity adjustment unit 720 instructs the position and rotation information acquisition unit 730 to ignore the variation of the detected angle until the variation of the angle exceeds a predetermined value.

Further, the sensitivity adjustment unit 720 adjusts the sensitivity for angle detection of the head on the basis of the zoom magnification acquired from the zooming instruction acquisition unit 710. As the zoom magnification increases, the sensitivity for angle detection of the head is lowered. If zooming is performed, then since the field angle decreases, vibration of the display image caused by the swing of the head can be suppressed by lowering the angle detection sensitivity of the head.

As the motion sensor, a combination of at least one of a three-axis geomagnetic sensor, a three-axis acceleration sensor and a three-axis gyro (angular velocity) sensor may be used to detect forward-backward, leftward-rightward and upward-downward movements of the head of the user. Alternatively, position information of the head of the user may be combined to improve the sensitivity of motion detection of the head.

A coordinate transformation unit 740 uses the position and the rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 acquired by the position and rotation information acquisition unit 730 to perform coordinate transformation for generating an image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100 with a tracking function.

The panorama image processing unit 750 reads out panorama image data from a panorama image storage unit 760, generates a panorama image by a zoom magnification designated from the zooming instruction acquisition unit 710 in response to the position and the rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 in accordance with the coordinate transformation by the coordinate transformation unit 740 and provides the panorama image to the correction processing unit 780. Here, the panorama image data may be a content of a moving picture or a still picture produced in advance or may be rendered computer graphics.

The correction processing unit 780 acquires an updated latest position and rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 from the position and rotation information acquisition unit 730 and corrects the image generated by the panorama image processing unit 750 using the updated latest position and rotation. Details of the correction process are hereinafter described.

The correction processing unit 780 provides an image after corrected to an image provision unit 770. The image provision unit 770 supplies the panorama image data generated by the panorama image processing unit 750 to the head-mounted display unit 100.

FIG. 5 is a view illustrating a panorama image 500 displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100. When the user is directed to the left front with respect to the panorama image 500, an image 510a included in the range of a field angle 150a in the direction of the head-mounted display unit 100a is displayed, but when the user turns the neck and is directed to the right front, an image 510b included in the range of a field angle 150b in the direction of the head-mounted display unit 100b is displayed.

Since the viewpoint and the viewing direction from and in which the panorama image displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100 is viewed vary in response to the movement of the head in this manner, the sense of immersion in the panorama image can be raised.

FIG. 6 is a view illustrating a reason why a correction process is required for the panorama image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100. If the user turns the neck and is directed to the right front, then the image 510b included in the range of the field angle 150b in the direction of the head-mounted display unit 100b is generated and displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100. However, at the point of time at which the image 510b is displayed, the position and the rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100b already indicate a change as indicated by reference character 150c. Therefore, although it is originally necessary to display an image which is viewed within the range of a field angle 150c on a head-mounted display unit 100c, the image generated and displayed actually is an image which is viewed in the range of the field angle 150b in the direction of the head-mounted display unit 100b at a point of time a little earlier. Due to the displacement by the time difference, an image in a direction a little displaced from the direction in which the user views is displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100, and the user sometimes feels a kind of drunkenness.

In the present embodiment, in order to eliminate this displacement, a process for correcting the generated image is performed. First, for the comparison, a conventional image generation process in which a correction process is not performed is described with reference to FIG. 7, whereafter a correction process of the present embodiment is described with reference to FIG. 8.

FIG. 7 is a sequence diagram illustrating a conventional image generation process in which a correction process is not performed.

The panorama image generation apparatus 700 performs preparations for assets such as a three-dimensional object or a texture to acquire a position p1 and a rotation q1 of the head-mounted display unit 100 at time t1. Concurrently with the asset preparations, the panorama image generation apparatus 700 preforms a process for rendering an image based on the position p1 and the rotation q1 at time t1. For example, where rendering is performed at the rate of 60 frames/second, approximately 16 milliseconds are required for generation of an image of one frame.

The image generated by the panorama image generation apparatus 700 is supplied to the head-mounted display unit 100. The head-mounted display unit 100 and the panorama image generation apparatus 700 are connected to each other by wire connection or wireless connection, and a fixed transmission time is required for the supply of an image from the panorama image generation apparatus 700 to the head-mounted display unit 100. Where the panorama image generation apparatus 700 and the head-mounted display unit 100 are connected to each other by a network, a network delay occurs.

The head-mounted display unit 100 acquires an image generated by the panorama image generation apparatus 700 and performs a displaying process such as scanning for displaying the image on the panel thereof. A delay is generated by the displaying process, and an image is displayed at time t’.

In this manner, after the position p1 and the rotation q1 of the head-mounted display unit 100 are provided to the panorama image generation apparatus 700 at time t1 until the image is displayed on the panel of the head-mounted display unit 100 at time t’, a fixed period of time is required for the rendering, image transmission and displaying process, and some latency occurs as depicted in FIG. 7. Also between time t1 at which the position and the rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 are provided for image generation and time t’ at which the image is displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100, the user who wears the head-mounted display unit 100 migrates or changes the posture. As a result, the user comes to view an image based on the position and the rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 in the past by the time difference .DELTA.t=t’-t1, and the user would feel “drunkenness” due to the displacement between the position and rotation on which the displayed image is based and the position and the rotation at present.

FIG. 8 is a sequence diagram illustrating an image generation process which involves a correction process of the present embodiment.

The image generation process until the panorama image generation apparatus 700 acquires a position p1 and a rotation q1 at time t1 and performs asset preparation and rendering processes and then provides a generated image to the head-mounted display unit 100 is similar to the conventional image generation process of FIG. 7. In the present embodiment, at time t2 at which the panorama image generation apparatus 700 provides an image to the head-mounted display unit 100, a correction process is performed for the generated image. This correction process may be performed by any of the head-mounted display unit 100 and the panorama image generation apparatus 700. Where the head-mounted display unit 100 has a sufficient processing performance, the head-mounted display unit 100 can perform a correction process. However, if this is not the case, then the panorama image generation apparatus 700 performs a correction process and supplies an image after the correction to the head-mounted display unit 100.

In the correction process, information of a position p2 and a rotation q2 of the head-mounted display unit 100 at time t2 at which an image is generated is acquired, and the image is corrected on the basis of the displacement in position and rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 between time t1 upon starting of rendering and latest time t2. The head-mounted display unit 100 performs a display process of the corrected image to display the image on the panel. Consequently, the apparent latency is reduced to the difference between time t2 and time t’ as depicted in FIG. 11.

In the following, while the correction process of the present embodiment is described, prerequisite technical matters are described first.

(1)* Coordinate System*

FIGS. 9A and 9B are views illustrating coordinate systems used by the head-mounted display unit 100. The head-mounted display unit 100 uses a tracking coordinate system 802, an HMD coordinate system 804 and a leftward-rightward visual field coordinate system 806.

FIG. 9A is a view illustrating a relationship between the tracking coordinate system 802 and the HMD coordinate system 804.

The tracking coordinate system 802 is a coordinate system which makes a reference to the position p and the rotation q of the head-mounted display unit 100. The tracking coordinate system 802 may be a Cartesian coordinate system, and the axes may be selected to any directions and also the origin may be determined arbitrarily. A coordinate system which is convenient for the sensors adopted in the head-mounted display unit 100 is selected. For example, upon starting of an application such as a game, a user who wears the head-mounted display unit 100 may be caused to assume a reference posture at a reference position, whereupon a reference position p0 and a reference rotation q0 of the head-mounted display unit 100 are acquired from sensor information of the head-mounted display unit 100 to determine the tracking coordinate system 802.

Alternatively, the user may have a motion controller 350 of the game machine 200 by hand. The user would operate the motion controller 350 in a state in which the head-mounted display unit 100 is worn thereon. Depending upon the game application, the hand may be moved while the motion controller 350 is held or the body may be moved. The motion controller 350 includes a three-axis gyro sensor, a three-axis acceleration sensor and a geomagnetism sensor.

A marker 300 is applied to the motion controller 350. The position of the marker 300 is detected by the camera connected to the game machine 200, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the marker 300 can be specified accurately together with position information obtained from the sensors of the motion controller 350. By setting the tracking coordinate system 802 of the head-mounted display unit 100 to the three-dimensional coordinates of the marker 300, the position and the posture of a virtual object which is controlled by the movement of the motion controller 350 and the viewpoint and the viewing direction from and in which the panorama image 500 controlled by the movement of the head-mounted display unit 100 is viewed can be processed synchronously.

The HMD coordinate system 804 is a movement coordinate system for representing the position of a device such as the display panel disposed on the head-mounted display unit 100 worn by the user. Although there is no limitation to the origin and the axes, for the convenience of description, the origin is defined so as to be the center of the head of the user. Meanwhile, the axes are defined such that, in the state in which the user wears the head-mounted display unit 100, the upward direction in the upward and downward direction is defined as Y axis; the rightward direction from the front is defined as X axis; and the direction toward this side from the front is defined as Z axis.

The user would move in a real space, change the direction of the body or turn the head in the state in which the head-mounted display unit 100 is worn. Upon starting of an application, the head-mounted display unit 100 which is in the reference position p0 and the reference rotation q0 moves together with time, and at present, the head-mounted display unit 100 is in the position p and the rotation q as depicted in FIG. 9A.

FIG. 9B is a view depicting a relationship between the HMD coordinate system 804 and the visual field coordinate system 806.

The HMD coordinate system 804 is a coordinate system wherein the top of the head of the user who wears the head-mounted display unit 100 is the origin while the upward direction is the Y axis; the rightward direction from the front is the X axis; and the direction toward this side from the front is the Z axis. On the other hand, the visual field coordinate system 806 is a coordinate system for determining the direction of displays for the left eye and the right eye. The rightward direction from one of the left and right eyes is defined as the X axis; the upward direction as the Y axis; and the direction toward this side from the front as the Z axis.

(2)* Coordinate Transformation*

In order to display an image on the panel of the head-mounted display unit 100, three coordinate transformations are interposed. All of the three coordinate transformations are affine transformations.

First, the image generation coordinate system (in the CG, the camera coordinate system) is transformed into the tracking coordinate system 802. Consequently, a view coordinate system when a real world or a virtual world in which a real or virtual object exists is mapped to the tracking coordinate system which represents the reference position and reference rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100.

Then, the values at present of the position p and the rotation q of the head-mounted display unit 100 are acquired from the sensor information, and the tracking coordinate system 802 is transformed into the HMD coordinate system 804. Consequently, the reference position and the reference rotation of the head-mounted display unit 100 are transformed into the position and the rotation at present.

Finally, the HMD coordinate system 804 is transformed into the visual field coordinate system 806. This transformation is a transformation which depends upon the person having the head-mounted display unit 100 worn thereon and the state in which the head-mounted display unit 100 is mounted and is fixed while the head-mounted display unit 100 remains mounted on the person. Consequently, the HMD coordinate system 804 is transformed into a coordinate system suitable for the eyes of the use of the head-mounted display unit 100.

Although, upon the image generation, coordinate transformation for transforming the tracking coordinate system 802 into the visual field coordinate system 806 via the HMD coordinate system 804 is used, upon the correction process, coordinate transformation for inversely transforming the visual field coordinate system 806 into the tracking coordinate system 802 via the HMD coordinate system 804 is used.

(3) Viewing Angle Data of Head-Mounted Display Unit 100

FIG. 10 is a view illustrating the visual field of the user who wears the head-mounted display unit 100. The visual field (field of view) extending vertically and horizontally from the center of the eyes is defined by four parameters FoVu, FoVb, FoVl and FoVr, and information of the viewing angle is defined by an arctangent using the parameters. Since the visual field for the right eye and the visual field for the left eye are defined similarly to each other, totaling eight parameters are used.

Now, an outline of a procedure for generating an image to be displayed on the head-mounted display unit 100 by the panorama image generation apparatus 700 of the present embodiment is described. Detailed calculating formulae are hereinafter described.

FIG. 11 is a flow chart illustrating a panorama image generation procedure by the panorama image generation apparatus 700.

As an initialization process, a coordinate transformation matrix from an image generation coordinate system into a tracking coordinate system is generated (S10). This is a work for determining a position and a rotation which make a reference for a movement of the head-mounted display unit 100. At a position instructed by the user, an initial position p0 and an initial rotation q0 are acquired from sensor information of the head-mounted display unit 100, and a coordinate transformation matrix from the image generation coordinate system into the tracking coordinate system is determined using the acquired values. For example, in order to determine, for example, in a race game, a posture of a person seated in a car in the game as a reference, the user is caused to assume a posture in which it is seated on a chair and directed forwardly upon starting of a race, and the position and the rotation then are determined as references.

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