Sony Patent | Display Apparatus

Patent: Display Apparatus

Publication Number: 10663733

Publication Date: 20200526

Applicants: Sony

Abstract

A display apparatus includes a frame mounted on an observer’s head, an image display device attached to the frame and a dimming device 700, the image display device includes an image forming device and an optical device 120, 320 having a virtual image forming region 140, 340 where a virtual image is formed on the basis of light emitted from the image forming device, the optical device 120, 320 overlaps with a portion of the dimming device 700, at the time of operation of the dimming device 700, a light blocking ratio of the dimming device 700 is changed over a range of from an upper region 701U to a lower region 701D and/or over a range of from an inner region 701C to an outer region 701S, and a virtual image forming region facing region 701 has a light blocking ratio higher than the light blocking ratio of the lower region 701D or the outer region 701S.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present disclosure relates to a display apparatus, and more particularly, to a display apparatus used for a head mounted display (HMD).

BACKGROUND ART

In recent years, augmented reality (AR) technology of synthesizing and presenting a virtual object as additional information or various types of information as electronic information to a real environment (or a portion thereof) has attracted much attention. In order to implement the augmented reality technology, as an apparatus presenting visual information, for example, a head mounted display has been studied. In addition, as an application field, work supporting in the real environment is expected. For example, providing of road guidance information, providing of technical information to technicians who perform maintenance or the like may be exemplified. Particularly, since there is no possibility that the hands are not blocked, the head mounted display is very convenient. In addition, even in case of intending to enjoy a video or an image while moving outdoors, since the video or image and an external environment can be simultaneously recognized within eyesight, smooth movement can be performed.

A virtual image display apparatus (display apparatus) for allowing a virtual image optical system to enable an observer to observe a two-dimensional image formed by an image forming device as an enlarged virtual image is well known from, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2006-162767.

As illustrated in a conceptual diagram of FIG. 26, the image display device 100’ is configured to include an image forming device 111 having a plurality of pixels which are arrayed in a two-dimensional matrix shape, a collimating optical system 112 converting light emitted from the pixels of the image forming device 111 to parallel light, and an optical device 120 which light converted to the parallel light in the collimating optical system 112 is incident on and which guides and emits the light. The optical device 120 is configured to include a light guiding plate 121 which propagates the incident light through the inner portion thereof by total reflection and emits the light, a first deflecting unit 130 (configured with, for example, a single-layered light reflecting film) which reflects the light incident on the light guiding plate 121 so that the light incident on the light guiding plate 121 is totally reflected through the inner portion of the light guiding plate 121, and a second deflecting unit 140 (configured with, for example, a multi-layered light reflecting film having a multi-layer stacked structure) which emits the light propagating through the inner portion of the light guiding plate 121 by total reflection from the light guiding plate 121. In addition, for example, if an HMD is configured by using such an image display device 100’, a light-weighted, small-sized apparatus can be implemented. In addition, with respect to reference numerals indicating other components in FIG. 26, the image display device of Example 1 described with reference to FIG. 5 is referred to.

Alternatively, a virtual image display apparatus (display apparatus) using a hologram diffraction grating for allowing a virtual image optical system to enable an observer to observe a two-dimensional image formed by an image forming device as an enlarged virtual image is well known from, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007-094175.

As illustrated in a conceptual diagram of FIG. 27, the image display device 300’ is basically configured to include an image forming device 111 displaying an image, a collimating optical system 112, and an optical device 320 which light displayed in the image forming device 111 is incident on and which guides the light to observer’s pupils 21. Herein, the optical device 320 is configured to include a light guiding plate 321 and a first diffraction grating member 330 and a second diffraction grating member 340 which are configured with reflection type volume hologram diffraction gratings provided to the light guiding plate 321. In addition, light emitted from each pixel of the image forming device 111 is incident on the collimating optical system 112, and a plurality of parallel light beams having difference incident angles with respect to the light guiding plate 321 are generated by the collimating optical system 112 and are incident on the light guiding plate 321. The parallel light is incident from the first plane 322 of the light guiding plate 321 and is emitted. On the other hand, the first diffraction grating member 330 and the second diffraction grating member 340 are attached to the second plane 323 of the light guiding plate 321 which is parallel to the first plane 322 of the light guiding plate 321. In addition, with respect to reference numerals indicating other components in FIG. 27, the image display device of Example 5 described with reference to FIG. 16 is referred to.

In addition, a virtual image based on the image is formed in the image display device 100’, 300’, so that the observer can view an image of an outside world and the formed virtual image in an overlapped manner.

However, in the case of a peripheral environment where the image display device 100’, 300’ is located is very bright or according to a content of the formed virtual image, there is a problem in that sufficient contrast is not exhibited in the virtual image observed by the observer. In addition, means for solving the problems, that is, a virtual image display apparatus (display apparatus) having a dimming device are well known from, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2012-252091.

CITATION LIST

* Patent Document*

Patent Document 1: Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2006-162767 Patent Document 2: Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007-094175 Patent Document 3: Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2012-252091

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Problems to be Solved by the Invention

Herein, sometimes, a display apparatus is required to allow an observer using the display apparatus to safely act in a real environment while surely recognizing an external environment.

Therefore, the present disclosure is to provide a display apparatus having configurations and structures capable of exhibiting high contrast to a virtual image observed by an observer and allowing the observer using the display apparatus to safely act in a real environment while surely recognizing an external environment.

Solutions to Problems

To achieve the above object, a display apparatus according to a first aspect of the present disclosure includes:

(A) a frame mounted on an observer’s head;

(B) an image display device attached to the frame;* and*

(C) a dimming device adjusting a light amount of external light being incident from an external portion, wherein the image display device is configured to include:

(a) an image forming device;* and*

(b) an optical device having a virtual image forming region where a virtual image is formed on the basis of light emitted from the image forming device,

the optical device overlaps with at least a portion of the dimming device,

when an observer’s nose side is referred to as an inner side, an observer’s ear side is referred to as an outer side,

a region of the dimming device facing the virtual image forming region of the optical device is referred to as a virtual image forming region facing region,

a region of the dimming device located in an upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region is referred to as an upper region,

a region of the dimming device located in a lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region is referred to as a lower region,

a region of the dimming device located in an inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region is referred to as an inner region,* and*

a region of the dimming device located in an outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region is referred to as an outer region,

at the time of operation of the dimming device,

(i) the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the upper region to the lower region, the virtual image forming region facing region has a light blocking ratio higher than the light blocking ratio of the lower region,

(ii) the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the inner region to the outer region, the virtual image forming region facing region has a light blocking ratio higher than the light blocking ratio of the outer region,* or*

(iii) the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the upper region to the lower region, and the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the inner region to the outer region, the virtual image forming region facing region has a light blocking ratio higher than the light blocking ratios of the lower region and the outer region.

To achieve the above object, a display apparatus according to a second aspect of the present disclosure includes:

(A) a frame mounted on an observer’s head;

(B) an image display device attached to the frame;* and*

(C) a dimming device adjusting a light amount of external light being incident from an external portion,

wherein the image display device is configured to include:

(a) an image forming device;* and*

(b) an optical device having a virtual image forming region where a virtual image is formed on the basis of light emitted from the image forming device,

the dimming device is configured to include:

a first substrate;

a second substrate facing the first substrate;

a first transparent electrode provided on a facing surface of the first substrate facing the second substrate;

a second transparent electrode provided on a facing surface of the second substrate facing the first substrate;

a first electrode formed to be in contact with a portion of the first transparent electrode;

a second electrode formed to be in contact with a portion of the second transparent electrode;* and*

a dimming layer interposed between the first transparent electrode and the second transparent electrode,

the optical device overlaps with at least a portion of the dimming device,* and*

a projection image of the first electrode on the first substrate and a projection image of the second electrode on the first substrate do not overlap with each other.

Effects of the Invention

Since the dimming device is provided to the display apparatus according to the first and second aspects of the present disclosure, high contrast can be exhibited to the virtual image observed by the observer, and furthermore, the observer using the display apparatus can surely recognize the external environment. In addition, the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the upper region to the lower region, the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the inner region to outer region, or the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the upper region to the lower region and changed over a range of from the inner region to the outer region, and the light blocking ratio of the lower region or the light blocking ratio of the outer region has a low value. Alternatively, since the projection image of the first electrode on the first substrate and the projection image of the second electrode on the first substrate do not overlap with each other, a change in light blocking ratio occurs. Therefore, an observer using the display apparatus can surely visually recognize the feet and the side of the body, so that the observer can safely act in a real environment. In addition, the effects disclosed in the specification are exemplary ones but not restrictive ones, and there may be additional effects.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1A is a schematic front diagram of an optical device and a dimming device in a display apparatus of Example 1, and FIG. 1B is a schematic cross-sectional diagram of the optical device and the dimming device taken along line B-B of FIG. 1A.

FIG. 2A is a schematic front diagram of an optical device and a dimming device of a modified example of the display apparatus of Example 1, and FIG. 2B is a schematic cross-sectional diagram of the optical device and the dimming device taken along line B-B of FIG. 2A.

FIG. 3A is a schematic diagram illustrating of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 1 similarly taken along line B-B of FIG. 1, and FIG. 3B is a schematic side diagram of the display apparatus of Example 1.

FIG. 4A is a schematic front diagram of the dimming device before operation in the display apparatus of Example 1, and FIG. 4B is a schematic front diagram of the dimming device after operation.

FIG. 5 is a conceptual diagram of an image display device in the display apparatus of Example 1.

FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the display apparatus of Example 1 as viewed from the upper side.

FIGS. 7A and 7B are schematic front diagrams of a modified example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 1.

FIGS. 8A and 8B are schematic front diagrams of another modified example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 1.

FIG. 9 is a schematic front diagram of still another example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 1.

FIG. 10A is a schematic front diagram of a dimming device before operation in a display apparatus of Example 2, and FIG. 10B is a schematic front diagram of a dimming device after operation.

FIGS. 11A and 11B are schematic front diagrams of a modified example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 2.

FIGS. 12A and 12B are schematic front diagrams of another modified example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 2.

FIGS. 13A and 13B are schematic front diagrams of a modified example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 3.

FIGS. 14A and 14B are schematic front diagrams of another modified example of the dimming device in the display apparatus of Example 3.

FIG. 15 is a conceptual diagram of an image display device in a display apparatus of Example 4.

FIG. 16 is a conceptual diagram of an image display device in a display apparatus of Example 5.

FIG. 17 is a schematic enlarged partial cross-sectional diagram of a reflection type volume hologram diffraction grating in the display apparatus of Example 5.

FIG. 18 is a conceptual diagram of an image display device in a display apparatus of Example 6.

FIG. 19 is a schematic diagram of a display apparatus of Example 7 as viewed from the upper side.

FIGS. 20A and 20B are a schematic diagram of a display apparatus of Example 8 as viewed from the upper side and a schematic diagram of a circuit controlling an illuminance sensor, respectively.

FIGS. 21A and 21B are a schematic diagram of a display apparatus of Example 9 as viewed from the upper side and a schematic diagram of a circuit controlling an illuminance sensor, respectively.

FIG. 22 is a schematic diagram of a modified example of the display apparatus of Example 1 as viewed from the upper side.

FIG. 23 is a schematic front diagram of an optical device and a dimming device in the modified example of the display apparatus of Example 1 illustrated in FIG. 22.

FIGS. 24A and 24B is a schematic diagram of an optical device in the modified example of the display apparatus of Example 7 as viewed from the upper side.

FIGS. 25A and 25B are a schematic diagram of an optical device in another modified example of the display apparatus of Example 7 as viewed from the upper side and a schematic diagram as viewed from the lateral side, respectively.

FIG. 26 is a conceptual diagram of an image display device in a display apparatus in the related art.

FIG. 27 is a conceptual diagram of an image display device in a modified example of the display apparatus in the related art.

MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

Hereinafter, the present disclosure will be described on the basis of examples with reference to the drawings. However, the present disclosure is not limited to the examples, and various numerical values and materials in the examples are exemplary ones. In addition, the description will be made in the following order.

  1. Display Apparatus according to First and Second Aspects of the Present Disclosure,* Overall Description*

  2. Example 1 (Display Apparatus according to First and Second Aspects of the Present Disclosure, Display Apparatus of First Embodiment, Optical Device of First-A Structure, Image Forming Device of First Configuration)

  3. Example 2 (Modification of Example 1, Display Apparatus of Second Embodiment, Optical Device of First-A Structure, Image Forming Device of First Configuration)

  4. Example 3 (Another Modification of Example 1, Display Apparatus of Third Embodiment, Optical Device of First-A Structure, Image Forming Device of First Configuration)

  5. Example 4 (Modification of Examples 1 to 3, Optical Device of First-A Structure, Image Forming Device of Second Configuration)

  6. Example 5 (Another Modification of Examples 1 to 3, Optical Device of First-B Structure, Image Forming Device of First Configuration)

  7. Example 6 (Still Another Modification of Examples 1 to 3, Optical Device of First-B Structure, Image Forming Device of Second Configuration)

  8. Example 7 (Still Another Modification of Examples 1 to 3, Optical Device of Second Structure, Image Forming Device of Second Configuration)

  9. Example 8 (Modification of Examples 1 to 7)

  10. Example 9 (Another Modification of Examples 1 to 7)

  11. Example 10 (Modification of Examples 1 to 9)

  12. Example 11 (Modification of Example 10)

13.* Others*

<Display Apparatus According to First and Second Aspects of the Present Disclosure, Overall Description>

In a display apparatus according to a second aspect of the present disclosure, a projection image of a virtual image forming region on a first substrate may be embodied to be located between a projection image of a first electrode on the first substrate and a projection image of a second electrode on the first substrate.

In a display apparatus according to a first aspect of the present disclosure,* a dimming device may be embodied to be configured to include*

a first substrate,

a second substrate facing the first substrate,

a first transparent electrode provided on a facing surface of the first substrate facing the second substrate,

a second transparent electrode provided on a facing surface of the second substrate facing the first substrate,

a first electrode formed to be in contact with a portion of the first transparent electrode,

a second electrode formed to be in contact with a portion of the second transparent electrode,* and*

a dimming layer interposed between the first transparent electrode and the second transparent electrode. In addition, in this case, the projection image of the first electrode on the first substrate and the projection image of the second electrode on the first substrate may be embodied not to overlap with each other. Furthermore, in this case, alternatively, in the display apparatus according to the second aspect of the present disclosure including the above-described exemplary embodiment, the dimming device may be embodied to be configured with an optical shutter utilizing color change of a substance generated by an oxidation-reduction reaction of an inorganic or organic electrochromic material. Specifically, the dimming layer may be embodied to include an inorganic or organic electrochromic material, and further, the dimming layer may be embodied to have, from the first transparent electrode side, a stack structure of inorganic electrochromic material layers of WO.sub.3 layer/Ta.sub.2O.sub.5 layer/Ir.sub.XSn.sub.1-XO layer or a stack structure of inorganic electrochromic material layers of WO.sub.3 layer/Ta.sub.2O.sub.5 layer/IrO.sub.x layer. Instead of the WO.sub.3 layer, a MoO.sub.3 layer or a V.sub.2O.sub.5 layer can be used. Moreover, instead of the IrO.sub.x layer, a ZrO.sub.2 layer or a zirconium phosphate layer can be used, or a Prussian blue complex/nickel-substituted Prussian blue complex and the like can also be used. For example, as the organic electrochromic material, electrochromic materials described in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2014-111710 and Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2014-159385 can also be used.

* The display apparatus according to the first and second aspects of the present disclosure including the above-described various exemplary embodiments may have a configuration where*

at the time of operation of the dimming device, the second electrode is applied with a voltage higher than that of the first electrode,

the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from an upper region to a lower region, a virtual image forming region facing region has a light blocking ratio higher than the light blocking ratio of the lower region,

the first electrode is arranged in the upper region,* and*

the second electrode is arranged in the lower region. The display apparatus having the configuration is, for the convenience, referred to as the “display apparatus of the first embodiment”. Therefore, in the display apparatus of the first embodiment, the first electrode may be configured to extend to an inner region.

For simplifying the description hereinafter, a planar shape of the virtual image forming region of the optical device and a planar shape of the virtual image forming region facing region of the dimming device are set to be a rectangle. In addition, for simplifying the description hereinafter, an outer shape of the dimming device is set to be a quadrangle. Each of the four sides of the quadrangle may be configured with a segment or may be configured with a portion of a curved line, and the vertexes of the quadrangle may be rounded. However, the planar shape of the virtual image forming region of the optical device and the outer shape of the dimming device are not limited thereto. In the case where the planar shape of the virtual image forming region is not rectangular, a rectangle may be assumed to circumscribe the outline of the virtual image forming region, four points where virtual lines connecting the center of the rectangle and the vertexes of the rectangle and the outline of the virtual image forming region intersect each other may be defined as virtual vertexes, and portions of the outline of the virtual image forming region which connect the virtual vertexes may be defined as sides. In the case where the outer shape of the dimming device is not a quadrangle, a rectangle may be assumed to circumscribe the outline of the dimming device, four points where virtual lines connecting the center of the rectangle and the vertexes of the rectangle and the outline of the dimming device intersect each other may be defined as virtual vertexes, and portions of the outline of the dimming device which connect the virtual vertexes may be defined as sides. One side of the quadrangle constituting the outer shape of the dimming device and facing the upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region is, for the convenience, referred to as an “upper side of the dimming device”. One side of the quadrangle constituting the outer shape of the dimming device and facing the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region is, for the convenience, referred to as a “lower side of the dimming device”. One side of the quadrangle constituting the outer shape of the dimming device and facing the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region is, for the convenience, referred to as a “inner lateral side of the dimming device”. One side of the quadrangle constituting the outer shape of the dimming device and facing the lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region is, for the convenience, referred to as an “outer lateral side of the dimming device”.

In the display apparatus of the first embodiment, the first electrode is arranged in the upper region. Specifically, it is preferable that the first electrode is arranged along the upper side of the dimming device. In this case, a minimum value of the length of the first electrode may be set to be a length corresponding to the length of the upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region, and a maximum value of the length of the first electrode may be set to be the length of the upper side of the dimming device. In addition, the first electrode may be configured to extend to the inner region. Specifically, it is preferable that the first electrode is arranged along the inner lateral side of the dimming device. Furthermore, it is preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends to an extension line of the upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is more preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends through the bisecting point of the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region to a virtual line parallel to the upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is furthermore preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends to an extension line of the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region.

On the other hand, in the display apparatus of the first embodiment, the second electrode is arranged in the lower region. Specifically, it is preferable that second electrode is arranged along the lower side of the dimming device. A minimum value of the length of the second electrode may be set to be a length corresponding to the length of the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region, and a maximum value of the length of the second electrode may be set to be the length of the lower side of the dimming device. In addition, the second electrode may be configured to extend to the outer region. Specifically, it is preferable that the second electrode is arranged along the outer lateral side of the dimming device. Furthermore, it is preferable that a distal end of the second electrode extends to an extension line of the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is more preferable that a distal end of the second electrode extends through the bisecting point of the lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region to a virtual line parallel to the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is furthermore preferable that a distal end of the second electrode extends to an extension line of the upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region.

Alternatively,* in the display apparatus according to the first and second aspects of the present disclosure including the above-described various exemplary embodiments may have a configuration where*

at the time of operation of the dimming device, the second electrode is applied with a voltage higher than that of the first electrode,

the light blocking ratio of the dimming device is changed over a range of from the inner region to the outer region, the virtual image forming region facing region has a light blocking ratio higher than the light blocking ratio of the outer region,

the first electrode is arranged in the inner region,* and*

the second electrode is arranged in the outer region. The display apparatus having the configuration is, for the convenience, referred to as the “display apparatus of the second embodiment”. In addition, in the display apparatus of the second embodiment, the first electrode may be configured to extend to the upper region. Alternatively, the first electrode may be configured to extend to the lower region. Alternatively, the first electrode may be configured to extend to the upper region and the lower region.

In the display apparatus of the second embodiment, the first electrode is arranged in the inner region. Specifically, it is preferable that the first electrode is arranged along the inner lateral side of the dimming device. In this case, the minimum value of the length of the first electrode may be set to be a length corresponding to the length of the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region, and the maximum value of the length of the first electrode may be set to be the length of the inner lateral side of the dimming device. In addition, the first electrode may be configured to extend to the upper region. Specifically, it is preferable that the first electrode is arranged along the upper side of the dimming device. Furthermore, it is more preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends to an extension line of the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends through the bisecting point of the upper side of the virtual image forming region facing region to the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is furthermore preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends to an extension line of the lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Similarly, the first electrode may be configured to extend to the lower region. Specifically, it is preferable that the first electrode is arranged along the lower side of the dimming device. Furthermore, it is preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends to an extension line of the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is more preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends through the bisecting point of the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region to a virtual line parallel to the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is furthermore preferable that the distal end of the first electrode extends to an extension line of the lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region.

On the other hand, in the display apparatus of the second embodiment, the second electrode is arranged in the outer region. Specifically, it is preferable that the second electrode is arranged along the outer lateral side of the dimming device. The minimum value of the length of the second electrode may be set to be a length corresponding to the length of lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region, and the maximum value of the length of the second electrode may be set to be the length of the outer lateral side of the dimming device. In addition, the second electrode may be configured to extend to the lower region. Specifically, it is preferable that the second electrode is arranged along the lower side of the dimming device. Furthermore, it is preferable that the distal end of the second electrode extends to an extension line of the lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is more preferable that the distal end of the second electrode extends through the bisecting point of the lower side of the virtual image forming region facing region to a virtual line parallel to the lateral side of the outer side of the virtual image forming region facing region. Alternatively, it is furthermore preferable that the distal end of the second electrode extends to an extension line of the lateral side of the inner side of the virtual image forming region facing region.

Alternatively,* the display apparatus according to the first and second aspects of the present disclosure including the above-described various exemplary embodiments may have a configuration where*

at the time of operation of the dimming device, the second electrode is applied with a voltage higher than that of the first electrode,

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